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  • cells
  • Within 4-6 days virus multiplication occurs within lymphoid follicles in the spleen, lamina propria of the stomach and small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes and Kupffer cells. (vin.com)
  • Virus, either free or lymphocyte associated, may enter the CNS by entering into mononuclear cells in the meninges, choroid plexus, epithelial cells of the fourth ventricle and ependymal cells lining the ventricular system. (vin.com)
  • Expression of the viral polyprotein leads to the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) in HeLa ( 48 ) and Huh-7 cells ( 23 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this work we use next-generation RNA sequencing to show that RIG-I preferentially associates with shorter, 5′ppp containing viral RNA molecules in infected cells. (pnas.org)
  • In influenza-infected cells RIG-I preferentially associated with shorter genomic segments as well as subgenomic DI particles. (pnas.org)
  • Her overall research focused on the molecular characterization of VSV: its viral RNA species and regulatory mechanisms during replication as well as its glycoprotein and a derivative, soluble form, shed from infected cells. (caltech.edu)
  • We investigated the mechanism of T-705 activity against influenza A (H1N1) viruses by applying selective drug pressure over multiple sequential passages in MDCK cells. (asm.org)
  • We infected HSC-F cells with SHIV-KS661 and measured the concentration of Nef - negative (target) and Nef - positive (infected) HSC-F cells, the total viral load, and the infectious viral load daily for nine days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Culture media from these cells were not infectious and showed no evidence of defective interfering particles. (uu.nl)
  • Kenney S, Natarajan V, Strike D, Khoury G, Salzman NP (1984) JC virus enhancer-promoter active in human brain cells. (springer.com)
  • Hall WW, Choppin PW (1979) Evidence for lack of synthesis of the M polypeptide of measles virus in brain cells in subacute sclerosing penencephalitis. (springer.com)
  • Oldstone MBA, Buchmeier MJ (1982) Restricted expression of viral glycoprotein in cells of persistently infected mice. (springer.com)
  • In this case the virus is said to infect cells with one-hit kinetics. (virology.ws)
  • The viruses within the agar plug move into the buffer, which can then be used to infect cultured cells. (virology.ws)
  • The stable cells supporting replication of DI RNA described in this report will be useful in further examining the innate immune signaling pathways and the host cell functions in viral genome replication. (unl.edu)
  • When should I harvest my protein after I have inoculated my insect cells with recombinant virus? (thermofisher.com)
  • Signs of viral budding-vesicular appearance of cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Viral occlusions-few cells will contain occlusion bodies, which appear as refractive crystals in the nucleus of the insect cell. (thermofisher.com)
  • Very late cell lysis-a few cells may fill with occluded virus, die, and burst, leaving signs of clearing in the monolayer. (thermofisher.com)
  • This constitutes an essential envelope of protection for the viral genome to survive outside of the cells and be able to enter and infect new cells. (siam.org)
  • multiplicity
  • We show that incomplete IAV particles lacking gene segments contribute to the propagation of the viral population through multiplicity reactivation under conditions of widespread coinfection, which we demonstrate commonly occurs in the upper respiratory tract of guinea pigs. (pnas.org)
  • amplification
  • Recent evidence suggests that viruses have evolved various mechanisms to cope with endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways for their efficient amplification and transmission, including the unfolded protein response (UPR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein
  • Negative-stain electron microscopy revealed that the particles were spherical (~40- to 75-nm diameter) and pleomorphic and that some of them contain HCV E2 protein and apolipoprotein E on their surfaces. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Omission of either the M or G protein expression resulted in no DI particle budding. (unl.edu)
  • Protein expressed at times later than 72 hours may be processed aberrantly, because the large virus load can cause a breakdown of cellular processes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Viral Protein Synthesis. (ebooks.com)
  • diseases
  • Our goal is to help extend this idea to other viral species to develop a general strategy, which might be used by public health actors for eradication of all viral diseases. (ibm.com)
  • vaccine
  • New vaccine and therapy against non-A non-B viral hepatitis, and their preparation process. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Virus antigen, method for its preparation and its use in diagnosis and therapy (as a vaccine). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • An ongoing problem preventing full eradication of the disease is the occurrence of vaccine-derived poliovirus, a new instance of the disease caused when the vaccine strain mixes with other closely related viral species. (ibm.com)
  • poliovirus
  • Rousseau and her collaborators employ a bottom-up multiscale modeling approach to describe the competition between wild-type poliovirus and defective interfering particles, starting from the within-cell level then moving to the cell-to-cell, within-host, and finally host population level. (siam.org)
  • mechanisms
  • In contrast, a diverse range of viruses actively inhibit superinfection through a variety of mechanisms, a phenomenon known as superinfection exclusion (SIE) ( 18 - 26 ). (asm.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • We also reveal roles for the viral nucleoprotein in modulating glycoprotein function and gene packaging during host adaptation. (pnas.org)
  • segments
  • Rather than implicating a specific viral gene, this approach revealed that superinfection susceptibility is determined by the total number of viral gene segments expressed within a cell. (asm.org)
  • Influenza virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus with a genome consisting of 8 segments ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • lethal mutagenesis
  • Our results demonstrate that T-705 induces a high rate of mutation that generates a nonviable viral phenotype and that lethal mutagenesis is a key antiviral mechanism of T-705. (asm.org)
  • Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and low mutational tolerance of many RNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • We investigated the effectiveness of lethal mutagenesis as a strategy against influenza virus using three nucleoside analogs, ribavirin, 5-azacytidine, and 5-fluorouracil. (asm.org)
  • We investigated the effectiveness of lethal mutagenesis against influenza virus using three different drugs. (asm.org)
  • Lethal mutagenesis has been applied to a number of RNA viruses, most commonly with nucleoside (e.g., ribavirin and 5-azacytidine) and base (e.g., 5-fluorouracil) analogs. (asm.org)
  • mRNA
  • Puga A, Rosenthal JD, Openshaw H, Notkins AL (1978) Herpes simplex virus DNA and mRNA sequences in acutely and chronically infected trigeminal ganglia of mice. (springer.com)
  • novel
  • Novel therapies for RNA viruses are needed due to the ease with which these viruses evolve resistance to existing therapeutics. (asm.org)