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  • vesicular stoma
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus [hereafter simply called vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)] is an arthropod-borne animal virus belonging to the Vesiculovirus genus in the Rhabdoviridae family. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cytopathogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been attributed mainly to the host shut-off activity of the viral matrix (M) protein, which inhibits both nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport, thereby effectively suppressing the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Prophylaxis and immunization in mice by use of virus-free defective T particles to protect against intracerebral infection by vesicular stomatitis virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Defective interfering T particles of vesicular stomatitis virus provide remarkable protection against viral disease and death when introduced intracerebrally in large numbers along with an otherwise rapidly fatal low dose of standard infectious virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The RdRP is contained within a viral large (L) protein, which associates with N‐RNA through a phosphoprotein (P). Here, we define that vesicular stomatitis virus L initiates synthesis via a de‐novo mechanism that does not require N or P, but depends on a high concentration of the first two nucleotides and specific template requirements. (embopress.org)
  • The RNA synthesis machinery of the NNS RNA viruses is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, our understanding of which has been largely shaped by studies of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (embopress.org)
  • replicate
  • Some researchers believe that such 'defective interfering particles' (which may not be able to replicate to high levels in the absence of a helper virus) could be a future therapy for some viral diseases. (bio.net)
  • This interference hinders the parent virus and enables the antiviral agents to replicate and spread, until the virus is completely gone and no more of the essential elements the agents lack remain available. (ibm.com)
  • PRNTase or PRNTase-like domains are evolutionally conserved among L proteins of all known NNS RNA viruses and their related viruses belonging to Jingchuvirales , a newly established order, in the class Monjiviricetes , suggesting that they may have evolved from a common ancestor that acquired the unique capping system to replicate in a primitive eukaryotic host. (frontiersin.org)
  • We showed that the three polymerase proteins (PB1, PB2, and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) expressed from recombinant plasmids could encapsidate, transcribe, and replicate an influenza virus viral RNA (vRNA)-like RNA containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in transfected human 293 cells ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • When a normal influenza strain infects one of these protected' cells, it produces proteins which are required for the protecting virus to replicate. (jyi.org)
  • in the other stage, however, viruses enter living plant, animal, or bacterial cells and make use of the host cell's chemical energy and its protein- and nucleic acid-synthesizing ability to replicate themselves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Retroviruses are enveloped positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate through a DNA intermediate inserted in the host cell genome ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • measles virus
  • The order Mononegavirales comprises highly diversified eukaryotic viruses with a monopartite negative strand RNA genome (rarely bipartite genomes), which includes important human pathogens [e.g., rabies virus (RABV), measles virus (MeV), Nipah virus (NiV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), Ebola virus (EBOV)] ( Lamb, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • At the between-host level, this spatial structure is evident for endemic pathogens from observed patterns of genetic differences across space, such as those observed for measles virus at large geographic scales [ 1 ] and dengue virus even at intracity scales [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • genomes
  • Subtomogram segmentation and filament tracing allowed us to define the path of many nucleocapsids and in some cases to determine the number of putative genomes within a single virus particle. (asm.org)
  • Within many particles, nucleocapsids were readily visualized in three dimensions, allowing us to trace the path of individual genomes through the virion. (asm.org)
  • Examples include the genomes of some (+) strand RNA viruses of plants, which consists of two RNA molecules that are packaged in different particles. (virology.ws)
  • In the simplest case, DI particles are unable to produce a complete viral capsid, and therefore the DI genomes can only be packaged when a wild-type virus co-infects the same cell. (virology.ws)
  • The family Rhabdoviridae includes 18 genera and 131 species of viruses with negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes of approximately 10-16 kb. (ictvonline.org)
  • virion
  • Our findings indicate that these viruses may contain between one and six copies of their genome per virion and that there is no discernible order to nucleocapsid packaging. (asm.org)
  • Rather than measure the lethal action of viruses averaged over the cell population, the clonogenic assay for CKP detects the minimal expression of virion components or products required to kill an individual cell and thus is a very sensitive indicator of cell death. (asm.org)
  • Neuraminidase
  • A Sandwich ELISA for the Detection of Neuraminidase of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus. (amedeo.com)
  • The available influenza-specific drugs are limited to two classes: M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Due to its divided genome, viruses of this group exhibit several biologic phenomena such as high recombination frequency, multiplying reactivation, and ability to synthesize hemagglutinin and neuraminidase after chemical inactivation of viral infectivity. (healthcpn.com)
  • novel
  • Moreover, our results suggest a novel mechanism for the influenza virus to antagonize the innate immune response by NS2. (frontiersin.org)
  • Novel therapies for RNA viruses are needed due to the ease with which these viruses evolve resistance to existing therapeutics. (asm.org)
  • Several novel anti-influenza compounds are in various phases of clinical development. (asm.org)
  • As an alternative we have designed a novel plug-flow tubular bioreactor system, providing high influenza virus titers for up to three weeks in continuous mode using suspension MDCK cells. (mpg.de)
  • This novel platform can be used for other viruses and help reduce vaccine manufacturing costs worldwide. (mpg.de)
  • Vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity. (asm.org)
  • Herpes Simpl
  • Methods and Results Myocardial samples from 29 patients with autopsy-proven endocardial fibroelastosis were analyzed for viral genome (enterovirus, adenovirus, mumps, cytomegalovirus, parvovirus, influenza, herpes simplex virus) by use of polymerase chain reaction or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Herpes Simplex Virus Amplicon: A New Eucaryotic Defective-Virus Cloning-Amplifying Vector," Cell 30: 295-304 (Aug. 1982). (patentgenius.com)
  • The Herpes Simplex Virus Amplicon. (patentgenius.com)
  • Long-term expression in sensory neurons in tissue culture from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) promoters in an HSV-1-derived vector. (asm.org)
  • Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing ICP27 induces protective immunity against herpes simplex virus through CD4+ Th1+ T cells. (asm.org)
  • molecular
  • This review article aimed at reviewing current science on defective interfering particles of their molecular and immunological features, role in disease progression and persistence, impact on vaccine production and viral vectors, and future directions. (omicsonline.org)
  • This technique has been extremely useful in advancing our understanding of the molecular biology and pathogenicity of influenza viruses. (asm.org)
  • Because [the] interfering vaccine acts intracellularly and at a molecular level, it should be effective against all influenza A viruses regardless of subtype," wrote the authors in their paper. (jyi.org)
  • 1. A substantially biologically pure amplicon derived from a Marek's disease virus as a DNA fragment thereof, wherein said amplicon contains all cis-acting functions required for DNAreplication, and in the presence of helper virus, said amplicon infects host cells and replicates, thereby forming high molecular weight concatemers of DNA. (patentgenius.com)
  • generation of recombinant
  • An important application of reverse-genetic techniques is the generation of recombinant viruses for use as vaccine vectors (reviewed in references 4 , 8 , 19 , 21 , and 26 ). (asm.org)
  • genetic
  • Although reverse genetics techniques allowing genetic manipulation of negative-strand RNA viruses were established for influenza A virus before other negative-strand RNA viruses ( 8 , 22 , 31 ), full recovery of infectious influenza virus from cDNA without the use of helper virus has proved to be technically more difficult. (asm.org)
  • In the case of epidemic pathogens, both surveillance data and viral genetic data often point to the occurrence of spatial spread, for example, in seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses in the U.S. [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The ability to prepare clonal virus stocks was an essential development that permitted genetic analysis of viruses. (virology.ws)
  • There is, therefore, more chance of mutations occurring over a short time period Viruses undergo genetic change by several mechanisms Genetic drift: where individual bases in the DNA or RNA mutate to other bases Antigenic shift: where there is a major change in the genome of the virus. (slideshare.net)
  • the understanding of viruses had grown to the point where scientists synthesized (2002) a strain of poliovirus using their knowledge of that virus's genetic code and chemical components required. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • H3N2
  • In guinea pigs inoculated with a mixture of viruses, parental H3N2 viruses dominated but reassortants also infected and transmitted to cage mates. (asm.org)
  • Since 2009, this same H3N2 lineage has cocirculated with viruses derived from the 2009 pandemic. (asm.org)
  • Orally administered T-705 at a dose of ≥30 mg/kg of body weight/day prevented death, inhibited lung consolidation, and reduced lung virus titers in BALB/c mice lethally challenged with H5N1- and H3N2-subtype viruses ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • poliovirus
  • The research collaboration will focus on poliovirus, the virus responsible for poliomyelitis , a highly infectious disease that mainly affects children, and 1 in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis 3 . (ibm.com)
  • Rousseau and her collaborators employ a bottom-up multiscale modeling approach to describe the competition between wild-type poliovirus and defective interfering particles, starting from the within-cell level then moving to the cell-to-cell, within-host, and finally host population level. (siam.org)
  • Ebola
  • Non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses belonging to the order Mononegavirales are highly diversified eukaryotic viruses including significant human pathogens, such as rabies, measles, Nipah, and Ebola. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mariana González Hernández is interested in host cell interactions of Ebola virus. (dpz.eu)
  • lethal mutagenesis
  • We investigated the effectiveness of lethal mutagenesis as a strategy against influenza virus using three nucleoside analogs, ribavirin, 5-azacytidine, and 5-fluorouracil. (asm.org)
  • We investigated the effectiveness of lethal mutagenesis against influenza virus using three different drugs. (asm.org)
  • We showed that influenza virus was sensitive to lethal mutagenesis by demonstrating that all three drugs induced mutations and led to an increase in the generation of defective viral particles. (asm.org)
  • Lethal mutagenesis has been applied to a number of RNA viruses, most commonly with nucleoside (e.g., ribavirin and 5-azacytidine) and base (e.g., 5-fluorouracil) analogs. (asm.org)
  • pathogens
  • There are also numerous animal pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae including Newcastle disease, rinderpest, peste-des-petits-ruminants, and canine distemper viruses. (asm.org)
  • RNA viruses are important pathogens in humans, animals, and plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • paramyxovirus
  • We conducted a low-resolution ultrastructural analysis of Sendai virus, a prototype paramyxovirus, using cryo-electron tomography. (asm.org)
  • We show that paramyxovirus particles may contain multiple copies of their genome and that there is no obvious order to genome packaging. (asm.org)
  • vaccinia virus
  • Mutational analysis of vaccinia virus nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase II, a DExH box RNA helicase. (asm.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • Ada, G. L., Perry, B. T.: Infectivity and nucleic acid content of influenza virus. (springer.com)
  • Ada, G. L., Perry, B. T.: Influenza virus nucleic acid relationship between biological characteristics of the vims particle and properties of the nucleic acid. (springer.com)
  • In viruses with a membrane envelope the nucleocapsid (capsid plus nucleic acid) enters the cell cytoplasm by a process in which the viral envelope merges with a host cell membrane, often the membrane delimiting an endocytic structure (see endocytosis endocytosis , in biology, process by which substances are taken into the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • respiratory syncy
  • Reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus directly from nasopharyngeal swabs. (amedeo.com)
  • progeny
  • Extinction of the population will occur when the number of infectious progeny generated by each infectious particle drops to less than one ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The resultant progeny viruses often suffer fitness defects due to suboptimal interactions among divergent viral components. (asm.org)
  • CKP activity can be independent of infectivity or the production of progeny virus. (asm.org)