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  • limbs
  • Nerve axons and the apical Bcl-w epidermal cap (AEC) are both essential for the formation of an accumulation blastema by amputated limbs of urodele salamanders. (assayway.com)
  • In amphibians this process is regulated by nerve fibres present at the site of injury, which have been proposed to release factors into the amputated limbs/fins, promoting and sustaining the proliferation of blastemal cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Position-specific induction of ectopic limbs in non-regenerating blastemas on Axolotl forelimbs. (uci.edu)
  • We screened the blastema of resected axolotl limbs with a cross-reactive mouse cytokine protein detection array, revealing a rapid induction of cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory markers within 1 d of limb resection. (pnas.org)
  • cAMP and cGMP measured by RIA and observed by immunohis-tochemistry in unamputated limbs and in regenerating newt limbs at early- and medium-bud stages showed cAMP and cGMP cytoplasmic accumulations in blastemata and in stumps of the regenerating limbs, with increases up to 1900% over unamputated controls. (springer.com)
  • In blastemata the cAMP increase was greater than that of cGMP while in stumps of the regenerating limbs the increase of cGMP was of a much greater magnitude than that of cAMP. (springer.com)
  • We have found that pseudotyped Maloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MMLV) retroviruses can very efficiently infect axolotl cells in vitro and in vivo , and can be used for both lineage and functional analyses in regenerating limbs. (biologists.org)
  • By employing model organisms such as zebrafish and mouse and extending discoveries to human cells and tissues, we hope to gain fundamental insight that can be translated into clinical advances, most notably solving the structural and reconstructive problems of the limbs, face, and head, whether congenital or acquired. (ucsf.edu)
  • vivo
  • However, some lower vertebrates such as teleost fish and some amphibians are able to compensate for the loss of body parts by regenerating a nearly perfect copy of the original part by dedifferentiating cells in vivo to facilitate regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This raises the question whether the in vivo dedifferentiation or reprogramming seen during regeneration has similarities to the in vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts to iPS cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The recent introduction of in vivo lineage-tracing techniques using fluorescently labeled cells challenged the long-standing view that complete dedifferentiation is a major force driving vertebrate tissue regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent advances in generating green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing transgenic frogs, salamanders, and fish, combined with molecular marker analyses, have enabled in vivo tracking of cells with high precision. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This model, where stem cell behavior can be monitored in vivo at single cell resolution, offers new insights for regenerative biology. (elifesciences.org)
  • dedifferentiate
  • We present evidence that upon injury, the quiescent (p27 Kip1 +/BrdU-) RPE cells transiently dedifferentiate and express sox2 , c-myc and klf4 along with eye field transcriptional factors and display a differential up-regulation of alternative splice variants of pax6 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • wound
  • The unique events of regeneration include the rapid closure of the wound by epidermal cells, interactions between the wound epidermis and underlying stump cells that stimulate dedifferentiation, and cell migration and proliferation that give rise to the blastema. (uci.edu)
  • Although infiltrating immune cells play a major role in determining the variable outcome of mammalian wound repair, little is known about the modulation of immune cell signaling in efficiently regenerating species such as the salamander, which can regrow complete body structures as adults. (pnas.org)
  • Addition of cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue has been shown to increase the rate of full thickness wound closure. (stanford.edu)
  • adult
  • For example, humans cannot regenerate cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction, despite the presence of adult cardiac stem cells [ 4 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Strategies include the rearrangement of pre-existing tissue, the use of adult somatic stem cells and the dedifferentiation and/or transdifferentiation of cells, and more than one mode can operate in different tissues of the same animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the adult limb [ 6 ] or neonatal limb model [ 7 ], in combination with tissue-specific and inducible mouse cre-reporter lines, these two conceptually similar lineage analyses reached the same conclusion: during mammalian digit-tip regeneration, tissue-resident stem or progenitor cells are fate restricted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Earlier studies identified a cell population that is closely apposed to the myofiber in the adult newt limb as well. (rupress.org)
  • tissues
  • Aging is an accumulation of damage to macromolecules, cells, tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once wounded, their cells become activated and start to remodel tissues and organs back to the pre-existing state. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the limb or tail has been autotomized, cells move into action and the tissues will regenerate. (wikipedia.org)
  • : 873 During the developmental process, genes are activated that serve to modify the properties of cell as they differentiate into different tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dedifferentiation of cells means that they lose their tissue-specific characteristics as tissues remodel during the regeneration process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies provide evidence that this blueprint is encoded in part by an information-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) within the loose connective tissues that controls the behavior of regeneration-competent cells. (springer.com)
  • How is the vast range of cells and tissues rebuilt during vertebrate regeneration? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, targeting specific cell types will be necessary to understand how regeneration of the diverse tissues within the limb is accomplished. (biologists.org)
  • We demonstrate that skeletal muscle dedifferentiation involves satellite cell activation and that these cells can contribute to new limb tissues. (rupress.org)
  • It is unclear to what extent differentiated cells reverse mature phenotypes and to what extent undifferentiated cells, such as stem cells, residing within differentiated tissues become activated, followed by their incorporation into the blastema. (rupress.org)
  • these cells have the ability to become one of several kinds of mature cell, and often help to repair and grow tissues. (elifesciences.org)
  • somatic
  • Somatic cells that change from one mature phenotype to another exhibit the property of plasticity. (jci.org)
  • Organisms that are able to regenerate their organs could share similar mechanisms and factors with the reprogramming process of somatic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fibroblast
  • Cell surface, heparin-like molecules are required for binding of basic fibroblast growth factor to its high affinity receptor. (springer.com)
  • Neurotrophic regulation of fibroblast dedifferentiation during limb skeletal regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). (uci.edu)
  • Macrophages are an important source of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals, arriving in mammalian wounds 48-96 h after injury, where they clear dead cells, release proinflammatory cytokines, and subsequently produce factors that dampen inflammation and stimulate angiogenesis, fibroblast migration, and replication ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Pharmacological or molecular genetic loss of V-ATPase function and the consequent strong depolarization abrogates regeneration without inducing apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • In fact, the researchers saw an increase in apoptosis in MRL mice -- also known as programmed cell death -- the cell's self-destruct mechanism that is often switched on when DNA has been damaged. (thinkatheist.com)
  • The combined effects of an increase in highly regenerative cells and apoptosis may allow the cells of these organisms to divide rapidly without going out of control and becoming cancerous," Heber-Katz said. (thinkatheist.com)
  • mammals
  • In mammals, distinct cells of the inflammatory response play crucial roles in determining the level of repair of injured organs. (biologists.org)
  • regenerate
  • Much less is known about the cells that are specialized to generate and regenerate the blueprint (the pattern-forming cells) in order to instruct the pattern-following cells as to how and where to rebuild the structures. (springer.com)
  • Depolarization caused by V-ATPase loss-of-function results in a drastic reduction of cell proliferation in the bud, a profound mispatterning of neural components, and a failure to regenerate. (biologists.org)
  • mammalian
  • Activation of salamander satellite cells occurs in an analogous manner to how the mammalian myofiber mobilizes stem cells during skeletal muscle tissue repair. (rupress.org)
  • transdifferentiation
  • During the process of transdifferentiation, the RPE loses its pigmentation and is reprogrammed to become neuroepithelium, which differentiates to reconstitute the different cell types of the neural retina. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herein, we investigate the expression of pluripotency-inducing factors in the RPE after retinectomy (injury) and during transdifferentiation in the presence of FGF2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, we show that overexpression of lin-28 after retinectomy was sufficient to induce transdifferentiation of the RPE in the absence of FGF2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concomitantly with RPE transdifferentiation, the transcriptional factor Mitf, an RPE-specific marker, is down-regulated, suggesting a change in cell fate of the injured RPE. (biomedcentral.com)