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  • GENE
  • Phenotypic characterization of uvsB mutants shows that they possess defects in additional aspects of the DNA damage response besides checkpoint control, including inhibition of septum formation, regulation of gene expression, and induced mutagenesis. (genetics.org)
  • Although there are Drosophila orthologs for both ATM and ATR, the DNA damage-dependent checkpoint functions reside primarily in the latter, which is encoded by the mei-41 gene. (genetics.org)
  • The ATM gene codes for a 350 kDa protein consisting of 3056 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 is a 2080 amino acid long protein that in humans is encoded by the MDC1 gene located on the short arm (p) of chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to mediating cell cycle checkpoints, Chk1 also contributes to DNA repair processes, gene transcription, embryo development, cellular responses to HIV infection and somatic cell viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forkhead box protein N3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXN3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timeless (tim) is a gene in multiple species but is most notable for its role in Drosophila for encoding TIM, an essential protein that regulates circadian rhythm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timeless mRNA and protein oscillate rhythmically with time as part of a transcription-translation negative feedback loop involving the period (per) gene and its protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The length of the coding region of the Drosophila timeless gene is 4029 base pairs, from which a 1398 amino acid protein is transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italics are used to denote the TP53 gene name and distinguish it from the protein it encodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the full-length protein, the human TP53 gene encodes at least 15 protein isoforms, ranging in size from 3.5 to 43.7 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • TP53 gene encodes proteins that bind to DNA and regulate gene expression to prevent mutations of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are complexes of RNA and protein present in the cell nucleus during gene transcription and subsequent post-transcriptional modification of the newly synthesized RNA (pre-mRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • The first clinical trials using inhibitors of ATR have been initiated by AstraZeneca, preferably in ATM-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), prolymphocytic leukaemia (PLL) or B-cell lymphoma patients and by Vertex Pharmaceuticals in advanced solid tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • histones
  • Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) can acetylate both histones and several nonhistone proteins ( 13 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • DNA is, however, supercoiled and wound around "packaging" proteins called histones (in eukaryotes), and both superstructures are vulnerable to the effects of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • There are several types of damage to DNA due to endogenous cellular processes: oxidation of bases [e.g. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)] and generation of DNA strand interruptions from reactive oxygen species, alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanosine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination, and depyrimidination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • In various Drosophila species, the timeless protein TIM contains more highly conserved functional domains and amino acid sequence than its counterpart, PER (protein encoded by per). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also a region of unknown function near the N-terminus of the TIM protein that contains a 32 amino acid sequence that, when deleted, causes arrhythmic behavior in the fly. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage is an abnormal chemical structure in DNA, while a mutation is a change in the sequence of standard base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • ataxia
  • Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATR are essential for such cell-cycle control, but some observations suggest that they also play a direct role in DNA repair. (genetics.org)
  • inhibitor
  • However, Gö6976 potently abrogated S and G 2 arrest and enhanced the cytotoxicity of the topoisomerase I inhibitor SN38 only in p53-defective cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated the in vitro potentiation of the cytotoxicity of a range of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs by the novel Chk1 inhibitor V158411 in p53 mutant colon cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • synapsis
  • How is recognition coordinated with assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC), a highly ordered protein scaffold that stabilizes homolog association, so that synapsis occurs only between correct partners? (stanford.edu)
  • interacts
  • TIM is also known to have a basic region, which interacts with the PAS domain of the PER protein, and a central acidic region. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Researchers in Rosbash's lab also showed that tim mRNA levels and TIM protein levels have circadian rhythms that are similar to those of the period (per) mRNA and its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of the proteins bound to a pre-mRNA molecule serves as a signal that the pre-mRNA is not yet fully processed and therefore not ready for export to the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The association of a pre-mRNA molecule with a hnRNP particle prevents formation of short secondary structures dependent on base pairing of complementary regions, thereby making the pre-mRNA accessible for interactions with other proteins. (wikipedia.org)