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  • tumor cell
  • The underlying basis for development of tumor cell resistance to temozolomide instead of death is not understood. (jove.com)
  • A minority of the tumor cell population undergoes senescence, with minimal caspase cleavage. (jove.com)
  • In summation, we have demonstrated that two different highly malignant tumor cell lines slowly undergo very altered cellular and temporal responses to chemotherapeutic monofunctional alkylation, as compared to rapid responses of normal cells. (jove.com)
  • The device delivers alternating electric fields and is programmed to ensure maximal tumor cell kill 1 . (jove.com)
  • COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of microarray-based transcriptomic mRNA expression data of 59 tumor cell lines revealed a specific gene expression profile predicting sensitivity or resistance towards honokiol. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Fundamentally, this intricate cross-talk creates the conducive condition for tumor cell proliferation, survival and metastas. (medworm.com)
  • Here, we hypothesized that patient tumor cell genomics influenced cell signaling and expression of PD-L1, chemokines, and immunosuppressive molecules and these profiles could be used to predict patient clinical responses. (springer.com)
  • The irreversible alkylation of DNA disrupts the nucleic acid architecture, which eventually leads to tumor cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growing evidence suggests that DNA damaging agents, such as duocarmycins, are more efficacious in tumor cell killing than tubulin binders, particularly in case of solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Journal of the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 2004 PMID 15205666 Rapamycin-resistant proliferation of CD8+ T cells correlates with p27kip1 down-regulation and bcl-xL induction, and is prevented by an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Christie DA, Kirchhof MG, Vardhana S, Dustin ML, Madrenas J. Mitochondrial and plasma membrane pools of stomatin-like protein 2 coalesce at the immunological synapse during T cell activation . (nyu.edu)
  • These compounds inhibit cell mitosis by binding to the protein tubulin in the mitotic spindle and preventing polymerization or depolymerization into the microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown previously that in cells treated with adozelesin, replication protein A (RPA) activity is deficient, and the middle subunit of RPA is hyperphosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, UBE2L3 manages cell cycle regulatory protein levels via the ubiquitin proteolytic pathway (UPP) during the G1/S transition and during the actual S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The survivin protein is expressed highly in most human tumours and fetal tissue, but is completely absent in terminally differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • Journal of Immunology, 2004 PMID 15494497 Nicotine activates nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 (NFATc2) and prevents cell cycle entry in T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • European Journal of Immunology, 2004 PMID 15307178 Increasing T-cell age reduces effector activity but preserves proliferative capacity in a murine allogeneic major histocompatibility complex-mismatched bone marrow transplant model. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Along with amphinase, another leopard frog ribonuclease, ranpirnase has been studied as a potential cancer treatment due to its unusual mechanism of cytotoxicity tested against tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adozelesin is an alkylating minor groove DNA binder that is capable of rapidly inhibiting DNA replication in treated cells through a trans-acting mechanism and preferentially arrests cells in S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first members of the IAPs identified were from the baculovirus IAPs, Cp-IAP and Op-IAP, which bind to and inhibit caspases as a mechanism that contributes to its efficient infection and replication cycle in the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by inhibiting the ability of cancer cells to divide: Acting upon tubulin, they prevent it from forming into microtubules, a necessary component for cellular division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules are the key components of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells and has an important role in various cellular functions such as intracellular migration and transport, cell shape maintenance, polarity, cell signaling and mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duocarmycin analogues are able to exert their mode of action at any phase in the cellular cycle, whereas tubulin binders will only attack tumor cells when they are in a mitotic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • When membrane depolarization occurs in a cell membrane where these channels are embedded, they open and allow calcium to enter the cell, which leads to several different cellular events depending on where in the body the cell is found. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper ruled out the conventional explanation (cell cycle effects) in two of these cell lines, and provided evidence supporting the hypothesis that random variation in cellular initial conditions causes some cells to die while allowing others to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cellular biology, labile cells are cells that multiply constantly throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that intracellular proteases called caspases degrade the cellular contents of the cell by proteolysis upon activation of the death pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Microarray assays of global gene expression profiles have shown that over 450 genes were significantly regulated by butyrate in bovine kidney epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To this end, basal gene expression profiles of naive and effector 2C TCR transgenic x RAG2(-/-) CD8(+) T cells were analyzed using Affymetrix arrays representing 11,000 genes. (jove.com)
  • cytokines
  • Diverse immune cell types infiltrate the tumor microenvironment, and the dynamic tumor-immune cell interplay gives rise to a rich milieu of cytokines and growth factors. (medworm.com)
  • citation needed] TH2 and ILC2 cells both express the transcription factor GATA-3 which promotes the production of TH2 cytokines, including the interleukins (ILs). (wikipedia.org)
  • increased T cell rec
  • They also exhibit increased T cell receptor sensitivity, decreased CD28 dependence, and become inhibitable by CTLA-4 and other negative regulatory pathways. (jove.com)
  • antigen
  • These results demonstrate that CTLs are poised to divide in transit and that their numbers can be influenced locally at the site of infection through interactions with cells displaying cognate antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Pubmed ID: 12582156 Peripheral CD8(+) T cells circulate in a quiescent naive state until they are primed by specific antigen and differentiate into effector cells. (jove.com)
  • therapies
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and leukemia stem cells share many features and the extent to which they differ will be the basis for the development of leukemia stem cell-targeted therapies without considerable toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cytotoxicity
  • Cytotoxicity of the bisphenolic honokiol from Magnolia officinalis against multiple drug-resistant tumor cells as determined by pharmacogenomics and molecular docking. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • T. Aida, and W.J. Bodell, Caffeine potentiates cytotoxicity and sister chromatid exchange induction in resistant rat brain tumor cells treated with 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea. (springer.com)
  • For example, potent cytotoxicity has been demonstrated in cells that express the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicular stoma
  • Up to one third of virus-specific CTLs within blood were found to be in cell cycle after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or vesicular stomatitis virus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • immune
  • Donskov F, von der Maase H. Impact of immune parameters on long-term survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • PD-1 promotes immune exhaustion by inducing antiviral T cell motility paralysis. (nyu.edu)
  • Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Sin Yee Gun, Sharon Wei Ling Lee, Je Lin Sieow, Siew Cheng WongAbstractRecent years have seen a renaissance in the research linking inflammation and cancer with immune cells playing a central role in smouldering inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. (medworm.com)
  • Eosinophils, sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • mtDNA copy number of ASCs was significantly lower than that of corresponding other cell populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • observed fractional killing at a single cell level in several cell lines, even in genetically identical populations grown in homogeneous environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • R. Schlegel, and A.B. Pardee, Caffeine-induced uncoupling of mitosis from the completion of DNA replication in mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • occur
  • All cytotoxic events occur within the first cell cycle in nontumorigenic cells. (jove.com)
  • Because the T-type channels are voltage dependent, hyperpolarization of the cell past its inactivation voltage will close the channels throughout the SA node, and allow for another depolarizing event to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubulin
  • The addition of tubulin ligands can affect microtubule stability and function, including mitosis, cell motion and intracellular organelle transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian
  • R.T. Johnson, and P.N. Rao, Mammalian cell fusion: induction of premature chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei. (springer.com)
  • dependent
  • We also observed that MHC I-dependent interactions, but not costimulation, influenced the division program by advancing effector CTL through stages of the cell cycle. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mice
  • For example, most adult cells in mice proliferate normally even without both CDK4 and CDK2. (wikipedia.org)
  • solid tumors
  • In solid tumors, poor access of the tumor to the drug can limit the fraction of tumor cells killed, but the validity of the fractional kill hypothesis has also been established in animal models of leukemia, as well as in human leukemia and lymphoma, where drug access is less of an issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • In contrast, normal human cells (MCF12A) exposed to a monofunctional alkylator undergo an immediate decrease in metabolic activity and subsequent senescence. (jove.com)
  • The proliferating activity of a single leukemia stem cell and the molecular mechanisms for their quiescent property remain unknown, and also their prognostic value remains a matter of debate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytotoxic and cancerostatis activity of isothiocyanates and related compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The large ectodomains of CD45 and CD148 regulate their segregation from and Inhibition of ligated T-cell receptor. (nyu.edu)
  • undergo
  • When eosinophils are activated, they undergo cytolysis, where the breaking of the cell releases eosinophilic granules found in extracellular DNA traps. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • Single cell sorting and culture were performed in the various sets of hematopoietic stem cells including CD34+CD38- acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell population (ASCs) from a total of 60 patients with AML, and 11 healthy controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • antiviral
  • The magnitude of an antiviral CTL response is thought to be controlled by the initiation of a cell cycle program within lymphoid tissues. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that antiviral CTLs remain in cell cycle while transiting to infected tissues. (ox.ac.uk)
  • biology
  • We focus on immunotherapy, stem cell biology, gene therapy, and nanotechnology applications to brain tumors. (northwestern.edu)
  • Therefore, it is important to understand how the biology of the leukemic stem cell in AML differs from normal hematopoietic stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biology portal Stable cells, which only multiply when receiving external stimulus to do so Permanent cells, which don't have the ability to multiply Encyclopædia Britannica Online: labile cell McConnell, Thomas H. (2007-01-01). (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoma
  • Survivin, like the others, was discovered by its structural homology to IAP family of proteins in human B-cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the quiescence property and molecular signature of leukemia stem cell and their clinicopathological implications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While going through cell division, one of the two daughter cells actually becomes a new stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Transcriptional insights into the CD8(+) T cell response to infection and memory T cell formation. (nyu.edu)
  • UBE2L3 has been linked to natural killer cell cytotoxic function, and high UBE2L3 levels had contributed to clearing chronic HBV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • exert
  • In addition, the local production of ammonia at the site of cancerous tissues is thought to readily diffuse into the cancer cells to exert a potent cytotoxic effect by interfering with their critical metabolic functions. (drugs.com)
  • One study which did address this topic used flow cytometry or elutriation of synchronized cells treated with actinomycin D1, camptothecin, or aphidicolin, each of which had been documented to exert its effects in a particular phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In ATL cell lines, complete DNA methylation of 5'-LTR was associated with transcriptional silencing of viral genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes, in turn, increase the risk that more mutations will occur in developing lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These rearrangements result in increased expression of blood cell development genes by promoting gene transcription and through epigenetic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysis
  • Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are designed to replicate and spread into the tumor, resulting in cancer cell lysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant 1716 lacks both copies of the ICP34.5 gene, and as a result is no longer able to replicate in terminally differentiated and non-dividing cells but will infect and cause lysis very efficiently in cancer cells, and this has proved to be an effective tumour-targeting strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancerous
  • By doing so at the site of cancerous tissues in the body, L-DOS47 is believed to modify the microenvironmental conditions of lung cancer cells in a manner that leads to their death. (drugs.com)
  • processes
  • Tubulin and microtubule-mediated processes, like cell locomotion, were seen by early microscopists, like Leeuwenhoek (1677). (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • L-DOS47 functions by leveraging a natural process in the body called the urea cycle to produce an anti-cancer effect. (drugs.com)
  • In effect, L-DOS47 reverses the urea cycle by breaking down urea into metabolites that include ammonia and hydroxyl ions. (drugs.com)
  • This finding that can be explained by the fact that S-phase in these leukemia cells lasts 18-20 hours, allowing some cells to escape the cytotoxic effect of the drug if it is given every 24 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of a cell cycle effect for camptothecin has also been reported recently in a live-cell microscopy study. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • They are found in eukaryotic cells, as well as some bacteria, and are formed by the polymerization of a dimer of two globular proteins, alpha and beta tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Dr. Chao will highlight previously announced laboratory and animal data that demonstrates the potential for L-DOS47 to bind to and debilitate and destroy human lung adenocarcinoma cells. (drugs.com)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) after a long latent period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) that exerts a targeted delivery of melphalan in cells with high expression of aminopeptidases, such as aminopeptidase N, which has been described as over-expressed in human malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In solid tumors, poor access of the tumor to the drug can limit the fraction of tumor cells killed, but the validity of the fractional kill hypothesis has also been established in animal models of leukemia, as well as in human leukemia and lymphoma, where drug access is less of an issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell lines derived from human choriocarcinomas, Kopf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemia
  • We review data from studies of chronic myelogenous leukemia and K562 cells to illustrate these principles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms such cranial neuropathies due to meningeal infiltration are identified in less than 10% of adults and less than 5% of children, particularly mature B-cell ALL (Burkitt leukemia) at presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • The modification of isoCA-4 by introduction of difluoromethoxy group at the para-position (3i) and substitution of the two protons of the linker by two fluorine atoms (3m), produced the most active compounds in the series, with IC50 values of 0.15-2.2 nM (3i) and 0.1-2 nM (3m) respectively, against a panel of six cancer cell lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • lines
  • observed fractional killing at a single cell level in several cell lines, even in genetically identical populations grown in homogeneous environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Mechanistic studies showed that the synergistic cell death was not due to an increase in viral replication but occurred through an enhancement of apoptotic cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • grown
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • normal
  • The transformed states are the phenotypes that a cell can access which provide a hyperproliferative advantage over the cell's normal counterpart. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polyamine levels are dramatically elevated in tumor cells compared to normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme activators bind to enzymes and increase their enzymatic activity, while enzyme substrates bind and are converted to products in the normal catalytic cycle of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PIO decreased the expression of p53 and cyclin D1 in J82 cells after long-term culture, which suggested that PIO may be helpful for diabetic patients with bladder cancer. (medsci.org)
  • understood
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well understood, easy to manipulate and relatively harmless in its natural state (merely causing cold sores) so likely to pose fewer risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • Mullbacher's paper showed that flaviviruses do the opposite: They specifically up -regulate surface levels of MHC class I. (As it happens, this had been described earlier, though I think only in specific cell types, 6 but this was the first time I had run into it. (iayork.com)
  • DcR1 is attached to the cell surface through glycophospholipid anchor. (abcam.com)
  • levels
  • 5 So it's pretty common for virus-infected cells to show reduced levels of MHC class I. (iayork.com)