• LIS-1 is homologous to the fungal genes NudF and PAC1, which are involved in cytoplasmic dynein mediated nuclear transport, but it is also almost identical to a subunit of PAF acetylhydrolase, an enzyme which inactivates the lipid mediator platelet activating factor. (umassmed.edu)
  • These results demonstrate the important role that dynein-controlled processes play in the correct development and function of the mammalian nervous system. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • In vitro experiments aimed at discerning the mechanism of dynein revealed that despite significant structural conservation, yeast and mammalian dynein have different motile properties. (smith.edu)
  • Specifically, a re-engineered chimeric dynein in which a single subdomain of the yeast dynein is replaced with the equivalent subdomain from mammalian dynein could isolate and elucidate the subdomain's contributions to the overall motor mechanism. (smith.edu)
  • To this end, we genetically engineered yeast to express dynein with the endogenous MTBD replaced by the mammalian MTBD. (smith.edu)
  • Most dynein heavy chains (DHCs) clearly group into cytoplasmic or axonemal isoforms. (rupress.org)
  • Live fluorescence microscopy revealed that dFMR-containing RNP granules move bidirectionally in thin processes formed by S2 cells in the presence of cytochalasin D. Knocking down the heavy chains of either kinesin-1 (kinesin heavy chain) or cytoplasmic dynein (dynein heavy chain) by RNA interference blocks the movement of the dFMR granules. (pnas.org)
  • We observed that the chimeric motors were not processive as individual motors but were able to walk long distances at speeds faster than native yeast dyneins with the help of a synthetic cargo chassis. (smith.edu)
  • Mutations in dynein or its regulators are linked to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Together, we provide in vivo evidence that distinct mutations in cytoplasmic dynein can either result in a pure sensory neuropathy or in a sensory neuropathy with motor neuron involvement. (jneurosci.org)
  • We thus provide evidence that mutations in cytoplasmic dynein lead to sensory neuron degeneration in mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although its directionality is evolutionary well conserved, differences exist among cytoplasmic dyneins from different species in their stepping behaviour, maximum velocity and force production. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • We hypothesized that the motile differences between dyneins from different species could provide opportunities to reengineer dynein for targeted mechanistic investigations. (smith.edu)
  • Cytoplasmic dynein, found in all animal cells and possibly plant cells as well, performs functions necessary for cell survival such as organelle transport and centrosome assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pattern is similar to that of the axonemal dyneins, but differs from that of the conventional cytoplasmic DHC isoform (termed DHC1a), which is not upregulated during ciliary regeneration. (rupress.org)
  • cDhc1a is closely related to the major cytoplasmic Dhc, whereas cDhc1b is closely related to the minor cDhc isoform identified in sea urchins, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Tetrahymena. (ku.edu)
  • Dynein-2 is involved in a process called intraflagellar transport (IFT), by which materials are carried within cilia. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, dynein-2 is a motor that uses energy from the molecule ATP to power the transport of materials from the tip of cilia to the base. (nih.gov)
  • Low levels of endogenous Tctex-1 were detected in the 19-20S dynein-containing fractions upon prolonged development. (wiley.com)
  • A second cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (cDhc) has recently been identified in several organisms, and its expression pattern is consistent with a possible role in axoneme assembly. (ku.edu)