• As the reproductive incompatibility is caused by bacteria that reside in the cytoplasm of the host cells, it is referred to as cytoplasmic incompatibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this period of time, some regions of the cytoplasm accumulate some of these cytoplasmic determinants, whose distribution is thus very heterogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasmic vacuoles contain plasma that has entered the hepatocyte cytoplasm (plasma influx) of affected hepatocytes (Li et al. (nih.gov)
  • Our results extend the current model that subsets of spermatogonia exist as isolated cells or clones and support a model by which spermatogonia of similar developmental fates are functionally connected through a shared dynamic cytoplasm mediated by thin cytoplasmic projections. (biologists.org)
  • We observe reversal of cytoplasmic flow induced by extracellular CaCl 2 , and report results that suggest parabolic flow of cytoplasm in the A. proteus pseudopod. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • It is generally assumed that chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B cell origin (B-CLL) is characterized by the presence of surface membrane immunoglobulins (SmIg) and by the absence of cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (CyIg). (biomedsearch.com)
  • To determine whether absence of cytoplasmic incompatibility in D. mauritiana was due to either the bacterial or host genome, we transferred bacteria from D. mauritiana into an uninfected strain of D. simulans, a host species known to express high levels of incompatibility with endogenous Wolbachia. (genetics.org)
  • In this review, we re-examine the model of nuclear-mitochondrial conflict in the light of recent experimental results from naturally occurring CMS, alloplasmic CMS (appearing after interspecific crosses resulting from the association of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes from different species), and CMS plants obtained in the laboratory and carrying mitochondrial mutations. (nih.gov)
  • We raise new hypotheses and discuss experimental models that would take physiological interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes into account. (nih.gov)
  • The study shows how efficiently the biology of cytoplasmic genomes-specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental inheritance-can allow them to accumulate beneficial substitutions and to purge deleterious substitutions faster than free-living sexual genomes. (phys.org)
  • In addition, the general insights gained from the study can be applied broadly to understanding adaptation for other cytoplasmic genomes. (phys.org)
  • Isolate a diversity of RNA species - All nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA species, from large mRNA species down to microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be isolated in high quality. (biocat.com)
  • Cid13 is a cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase that regulates ribonucleotide reductase mRNA. (diva-portal.org)
  • Unlike conventional poly(A) polymerases, which act in the nucleus and indiscriminately polyadenylate all mRNA, Cid13 is a cytoplasmic enzyme that specifically targets suc22 mRNA that encodes a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). (diva-portal.org)
  • By analyzing cells carrying tamoxifen inducible DDIT3 expression constructs we show distinct gene expression profiles for cells with cytoplasmic and nuclear localized DDIT3. (gu.se)
  • In order to keep step with the "quickened" mitochondrial translation, somatic cells activated the mTOR signaling pathway in order to accelerate cytoplasmic translation and balance mitochondrial translation. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study reveals a new information exchange mechanism within the cell (see figure below): The mTOR signaling pathway balances the dynamic between mitochondrial translation and cytoplasmic translation. (eurekalert.org)
  • To delineate the mechanism of CFTR endocytosis and the sorting signal(s) responsible for the endocytosis, we characterized the internalization pathway and the endosomal sorting signals at the cytoplasmic tails using intact CFTR and chimeric (Tac-CFTR) molecules. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Eukaryotes, though they carry their own DNA in their nucleus, which is passed on every generation, also harbor a stew of DNA from their evolutionary past within their cytoplasmic soup. (phys.org)
  • Our genetics-based studies indicate that, even though intrinsically derived dsRNAs are produced in the nucleus, they depend on cytoplasmic RNAi machinery. (ku.edu)
  • Cytoplasmic heredity may also be studied by the transplantation of the nucleus from one cell to another. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cytoplasmic tail of Tac was truncated, and replaced with PCR fragment of N- or C-terminal tail of CFTR. (mcmaster.ca)
  • We show that the fibrocystin CTS is an 18-residue motif localized in the cytoplasmic tail. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, we reasoned that even though fibrocystin is large, it is mostly extracellular with only a short cytoplasmic tail, and this is the likely position of its CTS. (rupress.org)
  • This construct lacks most of the predicted membrane-spanning residues but contains the entire cytoplasmic tail. (rupress.org)
  • A, a-f) Selected examples showing the distribution of subfragments of the cytoplasmic tail. (rupress.org)
  • To identify other maternal mRNAs that are regulated by WISP-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation, I used microarray analyses to globally identify mRNAs whose poly(A) tail lengths depend on active WISP. (cornell.edu)
  • Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a phenomenon that results in sperm and eggs being unable to form viable offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1971, Janice Yen and A. Ralph Barr of UCLA demonstrated the etiologic relationship of Wolbachia infection and cytoplasmic incompatibility in Culex mosquitos when they found that eggs were killed when the sperm of Wolbachia-infected males fertilized infection-free eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various stocks of Drosophila mauritiana and D. sechellia were found to be infected with Wolbachia, a Rickettsia-like bacterium that is known to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility and other reproductive abnormalities in arthropods. (genetics.org)
  • These experiments indicate that in D. simulans and D. mauritiana expression of the cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype is determined by the bacterial strain and that D. mauritiana harbors a neutral strain of Wolbachia. (genetics.org)
  • Schema: the crosstalk mechanism between mitochondrial translation and cytoplasmic translation. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the coordination mechanism between the cytoplasmic translation system and the mitochondrial translation system has been a mystery. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cytoplasmic streaming, or cyclosis, is the mechanism by which general transport and solute movement takes place within cells. (sciencephoto.com)
  • One mechanism to regulate the translation of maternal mRNAs is to control the length of their 3' poly(A) tails through cytoplasmic polyadenylation. (cornell.edu)
  • My results indicate that WISP-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a major mechanism to regulate maternal mRNAs in oocyte development and early embryogenesis in Drosophila. (cornell.edu)
  • Cytoplasmic transfer correlates with increased tumor cell dissemination in vivo and altered tumor cell migration in vitro. (mendeley.com)
  • Dimers were engineered of the cytoplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor that stimulated the kinase CheA in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • We further show that the D-amino acid peptide, designated GO-203, blocks homodimerization of the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain in vitro and in transfected cells. (harvard.edu)
  • We propose that Cid13 defines a cytoplasmic form of poly(A) polymerase important for DNA replication and genome maintenance. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recently, a molecule referred to as STING (stimulator of IFN genes) was demonstrated as being vital for recognizing cytoplasmic DNA and for activating the production of innate immune genes in response to a variety of DNA pathogens and even certain RNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • More than two thirds of the genes were downregulated, supporting a role for DDIT3 as a dominant negative factor that could act by either cytoplasmic or nuclear sequestration of dimer forming transcription factor partners. (gu.se)
  • Cytoplasmic DDIT3 affected more migration associated genes, while nuclear DDIT3 regulated more cell cycle controlling genes. (gu.se)
  • Nuclear translocation of DDIT3 regulated 81 additional genes linked to functions already affected by cytoplasmic DDIT3. (gu.se)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Dynein light chain 2 cytoplasmic. (novusbio.com)
  • The cytoplasmic elements carrying the plasmagenes separate in the daughter cells in an irregular manner, rather than in the orderly fashion characteristic of the chromosomal genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cytoplasmic DNA innate immune pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Over the past decade, key cellular sensors responsible for triggering innate immune signaling pathways and host defense have started to be resolved and include the Toll-like receptor (TLR), RIG-I-like helicase, and the cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding oligermerization domain-like receptor families. (nih.gov)
  • Given the importance of CD3 zeta in TCR signaling, we have directly examined the ability of the CD3 zeta cytoplasmic domain to couple CD2 to intracellular signal transduction pathways. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, we present a model in which macrophage/tumor cell contact allows for the transfer of cytoplasmic molecules from macrophages to tumor cells corresponding to increased tumor cell motility and dissemination. (mendeley.com)
  • show that macrophages transfer cytoplasmic molecules to tumor cells via cell contact in zebrafish and mouse. (mendeley.com)
  • RT-PCR was performed using human beta actin primers on 2 µL of the 50 µL of cytoplasmic RNA isolated from 1 million HeLa cells using Norgen´s Cytoplasmic & Nuclear RNA Purification Kit. (biocat.com)
  • In plants and animals the differences determined by cytoplasmic heredity are primarily the dominance of maternal traits and the expression of a particular phenotype when a cross is made in one direction and the loss of that phenotype when the direction of the cross is changed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These are (i) the second cytoplasmic loop, which connects rhodopsin helices III and IV, (ii) the third cytoplasmic loop, which connects rhodopsin helices V and VI, and (iii) a putative fourth cytoplasmic loop formed by amino acids 310-321, as the carboxyl-terminal sequence emerges from helix VII and anchors to the lipid bilayer via palmitoylcysteines 322 and 323. (pnas.org)
  • The lysate is then separated through centrifugation, with the supernatant containing the cytoplasmic RNA and the pellet containing the nuclear RNA. (biocat.com)
  • Remarkably, macrophage cytoplasmic transfer correlated with melanoma cell dissemination. (mendeley.com)
  • Cell culture experiments confirmed that cytoplasmic DDIT3 inhibited migration, while nuclear DDIT3 caused a G1 cell cycle arrest. (gu.se)
  • To our surprise, a counter-intuitive stability of cytoplasmic viscosity was observed during the cell cycle. (nature.com)
  • The cell or cytoplasmic matrix is described as a dynamic structure since it may change from fluid ( sol ) to elastic ( gel ) then back again to being fluid. (biology-online.org)
  • But do these cytoplasmic DNA also undergo adaptation within the confines of the cell? (phys.org)
  • Now, University of Sydney School of Life and Environmental Sciences researchers Joshua Christie and Madeleine Beekman, have used computational tools to better understand cytoplasmic DNA adaptation and how they promote beneficial mutations --and more importantly, avoid harmful mutations which could become like Trojan horses to affect the whole cell, and thereby, the health of an organism. (phys.org)
  • Effective Separation of HeLa Cell Cytoplasmic & Nuclear RNA. (biocat.com)
  • The cytoplasmic fraction apparently contained at least two active components since activity was obtained at two dilution levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • No genomic DNA contamination in cytoplasmic fraction - Purified cytoplasmic RNA can be used directly in RT-PCR reactions with no DNase treatment required. (biocat.com)
  • Furthermore, this kit can be used to isolate RNA for downstream applications where it is necessary to avoid DNA contamination, since the cytoplasmic fraction has been shown to be free of all traces of genomic DNA. (biocat.com)