• Role of Light and Malate in the Decreased Sensitivity of cms-T Cytoplasm Maize Leaves to Bipolaris maydis Race T Toxin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ABSTRACT Leaf segments from Texas male sterile (cms-T) cytoplasm maize isolines exposed to light (50 muM s(-1) m(-2)) for 8 h or more before or after being infiltrated with the Bipolaris maydis race T toxin (T-toxin) leaked significantly less electrolytes when immersed in distilled water (DW) for 24 to 48 h than did dark-treated leaf segments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The ultrastructure of mitochondria was investigated for 8 quantitative characters in 16 maize lines with nuclei of the lines WF9, A-632, B-37, B-73, cytoplasms of N, M, C, T-type and J. Rb sources. (eurekamag.com)
  • The PCR approach enabled a simple, fast and reliable large scale screening of maize cytoplasm among MRI gene bank accessions, significantly reducing time for cytoplasm characterizations compared to classical method of testing with restorers for each known type of CMS. (deepdyve.com)
  • Today, microbiologists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, and at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg (Germany) provide additional evidence that these two processes are intrinsically related and show that a protein complex called Ccr4-Not plays a key role in gene expression by acting as a messenger between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (phys.org)
  • To do so, a very efficient communication within the cell, between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, is essential. (phys.org)
  • This complex acts as a messenger between the nucleus and the cytoplasm to ensure that both transcription and translation levels are well adapted. (phys.org)
  • The picture is now complete: gene expression actually depends on a constant dialogue between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and the Ccr4-Not complex is a key player in orchestrating regulatory processes within and in between these different compartments", indicates Zoltan Villanyi, first author of this study. (phys.org)
  • A number of S male-sterile plants from several shrunken-2 inbred lines were crossed initially with an R138-TR inbred line pollinator carrying the nonrestoring genotype for S sterile cytoplasm. (genetics.org)
  • They are, however, consistent with the hypothesis that the event responsible for the appearance of exceptional male-fertile offspring among progeny of the original cross involved a change from male-sterile to male-fertile condition in the cytoplasm of the male-sterile M825 plant involved as the female parent in this cross. (genetics.org)
  • It appears that this plant bore an ear in which there was a relatively early mutational event at the cytoplasmic level resulting in a chimera involving some kernels which carried S male-sterile cytoplasm, and others which carried the mutated fertile cytoplasmic condition. (genetics.org)
  • The evidence suggests that the change from sterile to fertile cytoplasm has occurred in a number of other instances. (genetics.org)
  • These findings are of particular interest because it has heretofore been considered that both S and T types of male-sterile cytoplasm are highly stable. (genetics.org)
  • Culture filtrate from Helminthosporium maydis race T at dilutions of 1:10,000 to 1:20,000 destroyed protoplasts with Texas male-sterile (T) cytoplasm. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Substantial damage to protoplasts with nonmale-sterile (N) cytoplasm occurred only at a 1:20 dilution. (plantphysiol.org)
  • High concentrations of partially purified H. maydis race T (HMT) toxin (32.5-130 μg dry weight/ml) did not reduce survival of protoplasts with N cytoplasm or C or S male-sterile cytoplasms after 6 days of exposure. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Fertility Restoration of the Sorghum A3 Male-Sterile Cytoplasm throug" by Hoang V. Tang, Jeffrey F. Pedersen et al. (unl.edu)
  • Fertility restoration of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines carrying the IS1112C (A3 group) male-sterile cytoplasm has been documented as a two-gene gametophytic mechanism involving complementary action of restoring alleles designated Rf3 and Rf4 , as derived from IS1112C. (unl.edu)
  • The cytoplasm (of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes ) is where the functions for cell expansion, growth , metabolism , and replication are carried out. (biology-online.org)
  • The relatively low water content and high level of trehalose in ascospores of T. macrosporus might create a high viscosity in the spore cytoplasm and thus provide the physical conditions for low metabolism, which relate to dormancy and high stress tolerance. (asm.org)
  • This essential fatty acid metabolism cofactor helps to move the fatty acid to the mitochondria from the cytoplasm . (bioscience.ws)
  • It is hypothesized that the organization and composition of cytoplasm progressed initially from an unstructured, microscopic hydrogel to a more complex cytoplasm, that may have been in the volume magnitude of about 0.1-0.2 µm 3 (possibly less if a nanocell) prior to the first cell division. (mdpi.com)
  • The reason is that the composition of cytoplasm is not static, but rather dynamic. (biology-online.org)
  • To describe this phenomenon, Guo and colleagues created a phase diagram to characterize the cytoplasm from the perspective of each organelle. (labroots.com)
  • In this picture, the rate of cellular deformation is limited by the rate at which intracellular water can redistribute within the cytoplasm. (harvard.edu)
  • The jelly-like fluid of the cytoplasm is called the cytosol. (sophia.org)
  • If we're discussing just the jelly-like fluid that fills the inside of the cell as part of the cytoplasm, it is called the cytosol. (sophia.org)
  • The presence of DNA in mammalian cell cytoplasm triggers an immune response by binding to a dimeric enzyme, which inserts between DNA double helices to form the 'rungs' of a ladder-like structure, as an LMU team has now shown. (phys.org)
  • Cytoplasmic genes could alter considerably the quantitative parameters of mitochondrial ultrastructure, but the effect of the cytoplasm depended also on nuclear genes since one and the same cytoplasm could have opposite effects in case it was of different genetic background. (eurekamag.com)
  • Here, we show in rice ( Oryza sativa ) with Boro II cytoplasm that an abnormal mitochondrial open reading frame, orf79 , is cotranscribed with a duplicated atp6 (B- atp6 ) gene and encodes a cytotoxic peptide. (plantcell.org)
  • A) Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of adult mouse testis probed by Western blot for SPAG16 (C-terminal antibody recognizing both isoforms) or markers of cytoplasm (α-tubulin) or nucleus (Lamin B). (B) Sections of adult mouse testis immunolabeled with SPAG16 C-terminal antibody or pre-immune serum (negative control). (nih.gov)
  • The cytoplasm is the site where most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways like glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. (phys.org)
  • The flow of cytoplasmic components plays an important role in many cellular functions which are dependent on the permeability of the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasm represents the largest part of the cell by volume and hence its rheology sets the rate at which cellular shape change can occur. (harvard.edu)
  • However, at the early stages of mitosis VP22 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it immediately binds to the condensing cellular chromatin and remains bound there through all stages of mitosis and chromatin decondensation into the G 1 stage of the next cycle. (asm.org)
  • Anomalous diffusion of single particles in cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Our measurements of single-particle trajectories in cytoplasm and their random-walk interpretations elucidate two of these mechanisms: molecular diffusion in crowded environments and cytoskeletal transport along microtubules. (nih.gov)
  • The cytoplasm is actually an elastic gel, it turns out, so it puts up some resistance to simple diffusion. (science20.com)
  • Until now, cell biologists have assumed that particles and other objects passively diffuse through the cytoplasm because they collide randomly with neighboring molecules-a process called thermal diffusion or Brownian motion. (science20.com)
  • We identified a previously uncharacterized gene, spermatid maturation 1 ( Spem1 ), encoding a protein exclusively expressed in the cytoplasm of steps 14-16 elongated spermatids in the mouse testis. (pnas.org)
  • In our efforts to identify male germ cell-specific genes, we found a previously uncharacterized gene encoding a protein exclusively expressed in the cytoplasm of steps 14-16 spermatids (the last three steps of spermiogenesis, see Results ). (pnas.org)
  • In durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L., AABB), an alloplasmic durum line [(lo) durum] has been identified with chromosome 1D of T. aestivum L. (AABBDD) carrying the species cytoplasm-specific ( scs ae ) gene. (genetics.org)
  • Until now, gene expression was thought to take place in two distinctive steps: first transcription, which takes place in the nucleus, then translation, in the cytoplasm. (phys.org)
  • Today, they prove that it is a two way-street communication as the nucleus also communicates information to the cytoplasm at all stages of gene expression, thanks to Ccr4-Not. (phys.org)
  • We were able to show that the Ccr4-Not complex, by connecting the cytoplasm to the nucleus, is a global regulator of gene expression that acts at all steps from gene to protein production. (phys.org)
  • In order to identify cytoplasm types the gene-bank sources of CMS were screened using a PCR assay with specific primers for C, T and S cytoplasms. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cytoplasm on the other hand is made of water up to 80% nucleic acids, enzymes, lipids, non-organic ions, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lightweight molecular compounds. (differencebetween.net)
  • This volume provides an overview of major cytoplasmic properties and events which including cytoarchitecture and the physical properties of cytoplasm, molecular compartmentation and gradients, channeling, sorting, and trafficking. (bookdepository.com)
  • It also addresses physicochemical events, both measured and anticipated, which attend solutions under conditions prevailing in cytoplasm: molecular crowding. (bookdepository.com)
  • Using molecular dynamics simulations of a comprehensive atomistic model cytoplasm we found that protein-protein interactions may destabilize native protein structures, whereas metabolite interactions may induce more compact states due to electrostatic screening. (elifesciences.org)
  • Within the cytoplasm of the amœb particles travel up and down in all directions. (dictionary.com)
  • The irregular dynamics of such particles have given rise to various theories on the nature of the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory thus proposes that the cytoplasm exists in distinct fluid and solid phases depending on the level of interaction between cytoplasmic components, which may explain the differential dynamics of different particles observed moving through the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been research examining the motion of cytoplasmic particles independent of the nature of the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fertile lines-donors of CMS-inducing cytoplasms (euplasmic lines), functioning of CMS-inducing genes is inhibited by nuclear fertility-restoring genes, which suppress expression of these genes at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. (frontiersin.org)
  • Response to Comment on "Is the nuclear refractive index lower than cytoplasm? (deepdyve.com)
  • Wax, Adam 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Recently, Maxim A. Yurkin commented on our paper "Is the nuclear refractive index lower than cytoplasm? (deepdyve.com)
  • While small signaling molecules like calcium ions are able to diffuse with ease, larger molecules and subcellular structures often require aid in moving through the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that the component molecules and structures of the cytoplasm behave at times like a disordered colloidal solution (sol) and at other times like an integrated network, forming a solid mass (gel). (wikipedia.org)
  • It summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field and considers questions such as how molecules in cytoplasm interact. (bookdepository.com)
  • An unusual inheritance pattern was detected during examination of male fertility restoration in the CMS-inducing "9E" type cytoplasm of sorghum: Rf-genes were functional in self-pollinated progeny of F 1 hybrids yet were either not expressed or poorly expressed in backcrosses of these hybrids to CMS-lines with the same cytoplasm type. (frontiersin.org)
  • We argue that protein gradients created in this way need to be considered in experiments using fluorescent probes and could in principle encode spatial information in the cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • If you take the cytoplasm of the frog egg -- note that the cytoplasm has been homogenized, so whatever spatial structure that was there has been completely disrupted -- and just let it sit at room temperature, it will reorganize itself and form small cell-like units. (news-medical.net)