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  • receptors
  • Cytokinins are perceived by membrane-localized histidine-kinase receptors and are transduced through a His-Asp phosphorelay to activate a family of transcription factors in the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • We offer substituted 6-(alkylbenzylamino)-purin derivatives as cytokinin re-ceptor antagonists to provide cytokinin analogons for growth regulation in plants and to offer the possibility for a specific selectivity for cytokinin receptors without being toxic for animal cells. (innovations-report.de)
  • The biological activity of the prepared compounds was also assessed in receptor assays, in which the ability of the compounds to activate the cytokinin receptors AHK3 and AHK4/CRE1 was studied. (nih.gov)
  • high performance li
  • Further purification was effected by high performance liquid chromatography and cytokinin-active fractions were located by bioassay. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Anderson RA, Kemp JR (1979) Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of several plant cell division factors (cytokinins) and their cis and trans isomers. (springer.com)
  • Entsch B, Letham DS, Parker CW, Summons RE (1979) Preparation and characterization, using high-performance liquid chromatography, of an enzyme forming glucosides of cytokinins. (springer.com)
  • Ernstsen A, Jensen E (1985) High performance liquid chromatography of cytokinins. (springer.com)
  • genes
  • At later stages of gall formation the expression of host cytokinin biosynthetic genes is repressed, but so too is the expression of host cytokinin oxidases and dehydrogenases (Devos et al. (springer.com)
  • In addition, cytokinin treatment inhibited the auxin induction of only one of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes that exhibited impaired auxin inducibility in dgt hypocotyls. (rti.org)
  • Higher order mutants revealed progressively decreased sensitivity to cytokinin, including effects on root elongation, lateral root formation, callus induction and greening, and induction of cytokinin primary response genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Auxin Transport
  • The identification of plants that spontaneously form nodules ( 13 - 15 ), together with the observations that ectopic application of cytokinins ( 16 ) or auxin transport inhibitors ( 17 ) to the root surface lead to the development of nodule-like structures, demonstrates that the machinery required for NP development is intrinsic to the plant. (sciencemag.org)
  • regulates
  • The NSF 2010 project focuses on defining the network of interactions by which cytokinin regulates plant growth and development, and includes the analysis of additional transcription factors as well as proteins interacting with the primary signaling pathway. (bio.net)
  • derivatives
  • For example, the use of HPLC for the analysis of cytokinins and their derivatives is superior to the classical technique of gas chromatography, since the liquid mobile phase allows the separation and recovery of cytokinins and their derivatives which are not readily volatilized. (springer.com)
  • Cytokinins and their derivatives purified by HPLC are often sufficiently pure for immunoassay or direct introduction into the mass spectrometer as trimethylsilated or permethylated derivatives, since the step using gas chromatography is unnecessary. (springer.com)
  • Cytokinins are purine derivatives that promote and maintain plant cell division in cultures ( 1-8 ) and are also involved in various differentiation processes including shoot formation, photomorphogenesis, and senescence ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • AHK3
  • Cytokinins are perceived by three histidine kinases--CRE1/WOL/AHK4, AHK2, and AHK3--which initiate intracellular phosphotransfer. (nih.gov)
  • synthesis
  • We think that elucidation of the correlation between the content of cytokinins in tissue (or in the cell) and the content, synthesis and activity of the receptor is of great scientific and practical interest. (bio.net)
  • We suggest that the combination of simple synthesis, lowered cytokinin activity, and enhanced inhibitory effects on CKX isoforms, makes 3FMTDZ and HETDZ suitable candidates for in vivo studies. (springer.com)
  • The synthesis of a new group of 2-X-6-anilinopurines, including compounds with potential cytokinin-like activities, with various substitutions (X=H, halogen, amino, methylthio or nitro) on the phenyl ring is described. (nih.gov)
  • Cycloheximide (Chx) blocks both G 1 phase progression ( 13 ) and protein synthesis in these cells ( 14 ) and did not inhibit CycD3 induction by cytokinin ( Fig. 1 D), showing that induction is independent of progression through G 1 and involves signal transduction by proteins already present in stationary phase cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • receptor
  • Dear Colleagues: Will you be so kind to help us with pursuing the research of the cytokinin receptor from maize? (bio.net)
  • Previously, we have isolated and characterized a cytokinin-binding protein with the molecular mass of 70 kDa (CBP-70) and showed its receptor properties [1, (bio.net)
  • These results suggest that CKI1 is involved in cytokinin signal transduction, possibly as a cytokinin receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • We demonstrated that the corresponding gene encodes a cytokinin receptor that is required for the activation of the nodule inception regulator Nin and nodule organogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • mechanisms
  • M. Febs Letters (423)2 (1998) pp. 239-242 Thank you in advance, Sincerely yours, Feodor A. Brovko, Head of research team, Ph.D.(Biology), Senior researcher P.S. My team studies the molecular mechanisms of cytokinin signal reception in plant using biochemical and immunochemical methods, and methods of genetic engineering. (bio.net)
  • We then discuss the mechanisms by which cytokinins signal to influence plant development. (biologists.org)
  • Possible mechanisms for the production of these cytokinins were discussed. (oregonstate.edu)
  • isomers
  • Trans -isomers of cytokinins (CK) are thought to predominate and have greater biological activity than corresponding cis -isomers in higher plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • meristem
  • This process is mediated by the non-cell-autonomous repression of cytokinin signalling in the root meristem, and leads to distinct phloem- and xylem-pole-associated endodermal cells. (wur.nl)
  • Accordingly, ectopic overproduction of cytokinin in the root basal meristem most efficiently inhibits LRI . (plantcell.org)
  • nucleotide
  • d) a gene encoding a protein which consists of an amino acid sequence derived from the amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NOS: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 by deletion, substitution or addition of one or several amino acid residues and has activity of catalyzing reactions that synthesize active cytokinins from nucleotide cytokinins. (google.com)
  • mutants
  • Intriguingly, plasmodial development was slowed and spore viability reduced in these mutants indicating a potential role for cytokinins in plasmodial development. (springer.com)
  • purine
  • but cytokinins can also exist in inactive forms as ribosides (in which a ribose sugar is attached to the N 9 nitrogen of the purine ring) and as ribotides (in which the ribose moiety contains a phosphate group). (biologists.org)
  • interactions
  • Crosstalk between auxin and cytokinin plays important roles in the development of other meristematic tissues, however hormone interaction studies to date have focused on more accessible later-stage gynoecia and the spatiotemporal interactions pivotal for patterning of early gynoecium primordia remain unknown. (plantphysiol.org)
  • degradation
  • Aremu AO, Masondo NA, Sunmonu TO, Kulkarni MG, Zatloukal M, Spichal L, Doležal K, Van Staden J (2014) A novel inhibitor of cytokinin degradation (INCYDE) influences the biochemical parameters and photosynthetic apparatus in NaCl-stressed tomato plants. (springer.com)
  • ARRs
  • On the other hand, the type-A ARRs act as repressors of cytokinin-activated transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Type-A ARRs contain a central receiver domain along with short N- and C-terminal extensions and are transcriptionally induced by cytokinin. (plantcell.org)
  • gibberellin
  • Cytokinin and gibberellin, alone or associated, regardless of formation period and position, did not affect the size and physicochemical characteristics of fruits, only delayed the bunch harvest. (scielo.br)
  • In rice ( Oryza sativa ), the CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1 (Cga1) shows increased expression following light, nitrogen, and cytokinin treatments, while darkness and gibberellin reduce expression. (plantphysiol.org)
  • activates
  • At the Biodynamics Research Team in the Plant Productivity Systems Research Group at the RIKEN Plant Science Center, investigations have shown that cytokinin, a plant hormone that activates cell division, is closely associated with rice yields. (innovations-report.com)
  • roots
  • Synthesized in roots, cytokinins move upward in the xylem (woody tissue) and pass into the leaves and fruits, where they are required for normal growth, for cell differentiation, and, in conjunction with auxin (another plant hormone), to promote cell division. (britannica.com)
  • These will be used for immunolocalization of cytokinins in roots. (bio.net)
  • plants
  • TDZ thus increases the lifetime of cytokinins and their effects in plants. (springer.com)
  • However, only in plants and the protist Dictyostelium have cytokinins been definitively shown to act in cellular signaling. (biologists.org)
  • Many rice plants with various mutations, including activation of the plant hormone cytokinin, are grown there. (innovations-report.com)
  • Long-term cytokinin treatment of wild-type seedlings phenocopied morphological traits of dgt plants such as stunting of root and shoot growth, reduced elongation of internodes, reduced apical dominance, and reduced leaf size and complexity. (rti.org)
  • perturbations
  • Gall formation is thought to involve perturbations in phytohormone homeostasis, particularly of auxin and cytokinin and more recently brassinosteroids, contributing to the altered morphogenic processes within the root and hypocotyl (Ludwig-Müller et al. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, our results demonstrate that young LRP are more sensitive to perturbations in the cytokinin activity than are developmentally more advanced primordia. (plantcell.org)
  • arr1
  • The triple mutant arr1,10,12 showed almost complete insensitivity to cytokinin under many of the assay conditions used. (plantcell.org)
  • novel
  • Arima Y, Oshima K, Shudo K (1995) Evolution of a novel urea-type cytokinin: horticultural uses of forchlorofenuron. (springer.com)