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  • somatic cells
  • Somatic cells that change from one mature phenotype to another exhibit the property of plasticity. (jci.org)
  • Paralleling efforts to guide pluripotent stem cell differentiation by manipulating developmental cues, substantial progress has been made recently toward HSC generation via combinatorial transcription factor (TF)‐mediated fate conversion, a paradigm established by Yamanaka's induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by mere four TFs. (embopress.org)
  • Taken together, it is proposed that dFMRP cooperates with Piwi in maintaining genome integrity by regulating heterochromatic silencing in somatic cells and suppressing transposon activity via the piRNA pathway in germlines. (sdbonline.org)
  • progenitor cells
  • The process by which differentiated cell types arise from more primitive stem and progenitor cells generally proceeds down a strict lineal hierarchy defined by progressive functional specialization concomitant with restriction of lineage potential. (embopress.org)
  • From embryogenesis initiated by a single totipotent zygote to the lifelong homeostasis of organ parenchyma by tissue‐specific stem cells, physiological differentiation of progenitor cells largely proceeds both unidirectionally and irreversibly, with differentiated cell types and even intermediate progenitors being remarkably fixed with respect to their cellular identity and functional potential. (embopress.org)
  • Chemoattractant polypeptide compounds for progenitor cells and compositions and drug products comprising the compounds are provided herein. (google.com)
  • Methods for attracting progenitor cells to a location in or on a patient also are provided along with methods of growing and repairing bone. (google.com)
  • mammalian
  • Although infiltrating immune cells play a major role in determining the variable outcome of mammalian wound repair, little is known about the modulation of immune cell signaling in efficiently regenerating species such as the salamander, which can regrow complete body structures as adults. (pnas.org)
  • Although many features of mammalian cytokine/chemokine signaling are retained in the axolotl, they are more dynamically deployed, with simultaneous induction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers within the first 24 h after limb amputation. (pnas.org)
  • Macrophages are an important source of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals, arriving in mammalian wounds 48-96 h after injury, where they clear dead cells, release proinflammatory cytokines, and subsequently produce factors that dampen inflammation and stimulate angiogenesis, fibroblast migration, and replication ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • 5. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 3 wherein said cell extract is prepared from a mammalian cell. (google.es)
  • tissue
  • Dedifferentiation of cells means that they lose their tissue-specific characteristics as tissues remodel during the regeneration process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The notion of epithelial cell plasticity derives largely from early studies of tissue regeneration in primitive experimental models. (jci.org)
  • 7. A pharmaceutical composition according to claim 1 or claim 2 wherein the cell extract is prepared from a cell or a tissue selected from the group consisting of: a primary cell, a cultured cell, a cell line, an engineered tissue, and a primary tissue. (google.es)
  • 10. A pharmaceutical composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the cell extract is selected from the group consisting of a cytosolic extract, a cytoplasmic extract, a nuclear extract, a whole cell lysate, extracellular extract, whole tissue extract and mixtures thereof. (google.es)
  • 11. A pharmaceutical composition according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the cell extract is prepared from a cell or a tissue which is cultured in a cell culture device capable of exerting mechanical forces onto the cultured cells or tissue and is having a patterned surface. (google.es)
  • Attracted by as yet unidentified guidance signals possibly released from cells at the site of tissue loss, stem cells accumulate at the wound within 18 hours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Investigation of human retina donor tissue of patients with retinal diseases to facilitate development of stem cell-derived human retina model systems and regenerative therapies. (crt-dresden.de)
  • We identified stage-dependent functional roles of macrophages in mediating fin tissue outgrowth and bony ray patterning, in part through modulating levels of blastema proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, the question of whether salamander blastema tissue could induce regeneration and tumor regression in animals with a limited regeneration ability is discussed. (jcancer.org)
  • Following limb amputation, in the first phase epithelial cells migrate to cover the exposed underlying tissue, forming an epithelium that closes the wound. (jcancer.org)
  • Pathologies, as atherosclerosis, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiomyopathy, are often linked to the failure of cardiovascular tissue cells to reenter the cell cycle, namely, senescence, due to endogenous or exogenous causes. (hindawi.com)
  • Addition of cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue has been shown to increase the rate of full thickness wound closure. (stanford.edu)
  • smedwi-2(RNAi) neoblast progeny migrate to sites of cell turnover but, unlike normal cells, fail at replacing aged tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • smedwi-1 and smedwi-2 are expressed in small cells distributed like neoblasts-that is, posterior to photoreceptors and excluded from the pharynx ( Fig. 1, A to C ). smedwi- expressing cells, like neoblasts, reside in the parenchyma: mesenchymal tissue excluded from the nervous system, pharynx, and gastrovascular system ( Fig. 1, D and E ). Neoblasts are quickly and specifically eliminated after irradiation ( 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Tissue regeneration requires a series of steps, beginning with generation of the necessary cell mass, followed by cell migration into damaged area, and ending with differentiation and integration with surrounding tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) represents the secreted product of resident cells within every tissue and organ and thus defines a preferred collection of structural and functional molecules best suited to support the viability and phenotype of those cells. (google.com)
  • In the arena of basic research 2012 was another year of increasing strength, with key publications on stem-cell aging and regulation, bioenergetics, immune regulation and tissue damage, signaling mechanisms central to heart development and disease, and groundbreaking work on the intercellular transfer of genetic information via extracellular vesicles. (spotidoc.com)
  • Cancer-cell survival, growth and metastatic potential are directed by dominant molecular signalling patterns, the components of which have been shown to be qualitatively different from their normal tissue counterparts. (researchhunt.com)
  • epithelial
  • It is increasingly clear that epithelial and endothelial cells enjoy some of this plasticity, which is easily demonstrated by studying the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (jci.org)
  • As we discuss in this Personal Perspective, we believe that context and various changes in plasticity biomarkers can help identify at least three types of EMT and that using a collection of criteria for EMT increases the likelihood that everyone is studying the same phenomenon - namely, the transition of epithelial and endothelial cells to a motile phenotype. (jci.org)
  • These themes cooperate in breast cancer, as induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition enhances self-renewal and expression of cancer stem cells, which are believed to facilitate tumor resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • epigenetic
  • These cell extracts can direct epigenetic reprogramming of the cancer cells and thereby reverse their neoplastic phenotype. (google.es)
  • Michael Skinner : Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of reproductive phenotypes and disease: ancestral ghosts in your genome 9:45 a.m. 10:1 5 a.m. (ufl.edu)
  • cellular
  • Although the cellular mediators and immunological signaling necessary for regeneration in the salamander have not been described, recent reports suggest that inflammation may influence the initiation and completion of wound healing and regeneration ( 9 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 14 ), as the cytokine microenvironment directly influences the time course of leukocyte infiltration, cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and collagen remodeling of damaged tissues. (pnas.org)
  • At the molecular level, in fact, a gradual weakening of the cellular processes regulating cardiovascular homeostasis occurs in aging cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Subsequent efforts to identify the trans‐acting factors capable of altering cell fate revealed the central role of transcription factors (TFs) in determining cellular identity. (embopress.org)
  • this is such a fundamental piece of cellular machinery that there is no expectation that cancer cells could find a way around it. (fightaging.org)
  • Because of its function, the name "nurse cell" has been given to the cellular components. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to its remarkable ability of regeneration, an injured muscle cell initiates a finely orchestrated set of cellular responses, resulting in the regeneration of a well-innervated, fully vascularized and contractile muscle apparatus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is fundamental to animal development, immune function and cellular homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • inflammatory
  • Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Signals Are Simultaneously Induced Following Axolotl Limb Amputation and Sustained Through Regeneration. (pnas.org)
  • In mammals, distinct cells of the inflammatory response play crucial roles in determining the level of repair of injured organs. (biologists.org)
  • The phosphatidylserine receptor (Ptdsr) on phagocytes has been implicated in the recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells and in anti-inflammatory signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A comprehensive investigation of apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and in vitro demonstrated that engulfment of apoptotic cells was normal in Ptdsr knockout mice, but Ptdsr -deficient macrophages were impaired in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine signaling after stimulation with apoptotic cells or with lipopolysaccharide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some pro-inflammatory cytokines such as for example monocyte chemoattractant proteins-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 have already been found to become higher in HIV-infected kids compared to regular kids and high-sensitivity C-reactive proteins (hs-CRP) continues to be found to become associated with elevated cIMT. (healthdisparitiesks.org)
  • Regulation
  • This review will integrate the recently reported strategies to directly convert a variety of starting cell types toward HSCs in the context of hematopoietic transcriptional regulation and discuss how these findings could be further developed toward the ultimate generation of therapeutic human HSCs. (embopress.org)
  • Some of the PIWI-class proteins have been implicated in the regulation of germ cells ( 9 - 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The kidney is an intricate organ that requires coordinated regulation by distinct cell types and complex networks of genes to ensure its proper development and function. (grantome.com)
  • apoptosis
  • These findings shed some light on how a tumor cell may avert apoptosis using Hsp60 and point to the anti-cancer potential of drugs, such as CubipyOXA, which interfere with Hsp60 / pC3 (zeige PCSK1 ELISA Kits ) complex formation, and thus allow the apoptotic cascade to proceed. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Virchow
  • By the mid-19th century, Raspail, Remak, and Virchow expanded this hypothesis by suggesting that all cells come from preexisting cells - the so-called cell theory. (jci.org)
  • populations
  • We used flow cytometry to isolate two populations of irradiation-sensitive cells with neoblast morphology, named X1 and X2, and examined smedwi-2 expression ( Fig. 1I ). (sciencemag.org)
  • genes
  • Cells in the primordia of zebrafish fins, for example, express four genes from the homeobox msx family during development and regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identified at least five different temporal synexpression classes, including genes specifically induced within a few hours after injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Planarians present a promising venue for the study of PIWI-like genes because stem cells play prominent roles in homeostasis and regeneration and because the genetic study of planarian stem cells is now possible ( 12 , 13 , 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • immune
  • At the top of the list was eotaxin , a small protein that attracts a certain type of immune cells to areas where it has been secreted by other types of cells. (fightaging.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • Fibroblasts are prototypical mesenchymal cells responsible for synthesizing the extracellular matrix, thus preserving the structural integrity of connective tissues [ 1 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Although other cell types contribute to blastema formation, fibroblasts appear to play a central role [ 5 , 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • vivo
  • The importance of efficient mechanisms for apoptotic cell clearance in vivo is supported by the observation that autoimmune responses can be provoked in mice when key molecules for apoptotic cell recognition and uptake are missing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cancers
  • In order to achieve unfettered growth all cancers must bypass this limit by continually lengthening their telomeres, a goal that is achieved through mutations that allow cancer cells to use telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) processes. (fightaging.org)
  • PURPOSE and BACKGROUND Cancers cells grow without the vices of responses control systems, leading to increased tumor cell success. (researchhunt.com)
  • formation
  • Pattern formation in the morphogenesis of an animal is regulated by genetic induction factors that put cells to work after damage has occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat-shock protein 60 is required for blastema formation and maintenance during regeneration. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • However, this remarkable turnover does not result in a high incidence of tumor formation [ 3 ], suggesting that a tight control system is in place that prevents uncontrolled cell proliferation and therefore cancer. (jcancer.org)
  • Cells were analyzed for angiogenic gene expression and ability to promote microvascular tubule formation in vitro. (stanford.edu)
  • Some events that occur during the nurse cell formation are analogous to those occurring during muscle cell regeneration/repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despommier [ 3 ] has already elegantly reviewed the process of capsule formation with emphasis on nurse cell formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present review article deals with the whole process of capsule formation but puts more emphasis on the analogy between nurse cell formation and muscle cell repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are many similarities between the processes of nurse cell formation after Trichinella infection and regeneration of muscle cells after injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The regeneration of the oral siphon (OS) and other distal structures in the ascidian occurs by epimorphosis involving the formation of a blastema of proliferating cells. (researchhunt.com)
  • knockdown
  • Using the minimal CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system, this study showed that coexpression of the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) and guide RNAs targeting the endogenous roX locus in the Drosophila cells results in a robust and specific knockdown of roX1 and roX2 RNAs, thus eliminating the need for recruiting chromatin modifying proteins for effective gene silencing. (sdbonline.org)
  • limb
  • Finally, in the third phase, the blastema grows in a proximodistal direction, regenerating the missing limb. (jcancer.org)
  • embryonic development
  • While it is commonly accepted as an aging-related phenomenon, senescence might happen also during the embryonic development with the biological meaning of replacing transient structures or specific cell types with other ones [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • tissues
  • Once wounded, their cells become activated and start to remodel tissues and organs back to the pre-existing state. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferative
  • 1. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a cell extract and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, for use in the treatment of a proliferative disease. (google.es)
  • biology
  • In biology , regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes , cells , organisms , and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 Department of Medicine and Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. (jci.org)
  • Address correspondence to: Eric G. Neilson, Departments of Medicine and Cell and Developmental Biology, D-3100 MCN, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2358, USA. (jci.org)