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  • urine
  • The presence of cystine in urine is often indicative of amino acid reabsorption defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional results of the study indicated similar amounts of cystine were present in the urine from both untreated and α-lipoic acid-treated animals in the model system. (nih.gov)
  • The investigators confirmed this is a likely mechanism by demonstrating that the urine from α-lipoic acid-treated animals formed significantly less cystine precipitate (solid deposits that form from the compound in solution) during a 3-day period in the laboratory. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, it appears that the urine obtained from α-lipoic acid-treated animals can maintain larger amounts of cystine "in solution"-thereby shutting down the pathway that ultimately leads to stone formation. (nih.gov)
  • One effort is assessing the efficacy of cystine mimetics (compounds with similar structure) to block the cystine crystallization process in human urine and stone formation in the model system used above. (nih.gov)
  • Cystine crystals form hexagonal-shaped crystals that can be viewed upon microscopic analysis of the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysine
  • The few that have been characterized transport Cystine (TC# 2.A.43.1.1), basic amino acids such as L-lysine and L-arginine (TC# 2.A.43.2.1) and drugs such as fluconazole and caspofungin (TC# 2.A.43.2.7). (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Cystine promotes the formation of cystine-dependent dwarf colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two compounds believed to have anti-cystine stone formation properties, tiopronin and L-CDME, were initially evaluated in this model system but were ineffective. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to these two drugs, α-lipoic acid significantly slowed the growth rate of cystine stone formation compared with untreated animals in the model system. (nih.gov)
  • Research efforts continue that ultimately seek to prevent cystine stone formation in people. (nih.gov)
  • crystallization
  • Basically it is used in amounts commonly ranging from 250-750 mg. daily, often taken in several portions throughout the day along with three times the vitamin C to prevent crystallization of excess cystine. (healthy.net)
  • Disease
  • Researchers recently used a mouse model of cystine stone disease to identify compounds that slowed the growth of this stone type. (nih.gov)
  • it removes cystine that builds up in cells of people with the disease. (wikipedia.org)