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  • Glutamate
  • Some of the mechanisms of neural damage found in ALS include increased free radical generation/oxidative damage, impaired electron transport, disrupted calcium channel function, reactive astrogliosis and dysfunctional transporters for L-glutamate, neurotoxicity, oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA/ inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, autoimmunity, and generalized disruption of metabolism of neuroexciotoxic amino acids like glutamate, aspartate, and NAAG. (amalgam.org)
  • Protein
  • The cellular cysteine is highly regulated in a narrow range of concentrations due to its cyto- and neurtoxicity when it is overwhelmed or its deficiency for protein synthesis and other vital metabolic reactions when its amount is restricted. (ukrbiochemjournal.org)
  • Acetyl-CoA ( acetyl coenzyme A ) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that lmo0135 encodes a multifunctional protein that is associated with cysteine transport, acid resistance, bacterial membrane integrity, and adherence to host cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • GSAO
  • GSAO (4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid) and PENAO (4-(N-(S-penicillaminylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid) are tumour metabolism inhibitors that target adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) of the inner-mitochondrial membrane. (springermedizin.de)
  • Metabolism of GSAO at the cell surface is required for it to exert its anti-mitochondrial effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oxidation
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the pharmacokinetics of SAC in rats and dogs is characterized by its high oral bioavailability, N -acetylation and S -oxidation metabolism, and extensive renal reabsorption, indicating the critical roles of liver and kidney in the elimination of SAC. (aspetjournals.org)
  • urine
  • 90%) and its four metabolites- N -acetyl- S -allyl- l -cysteine (NAc-SAC), N -acetyl- S -allyl- l -cysteine sulfoxide (NAc-SACS), S -allyl- l -cysteine sulfoxide (SACS), and l - γ -glutamyl- S -allyl- l -cysteine-were identified in the plasma and/or urine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Gene
  • The lmo0135 gene product (designated CtaP, for c ysteine t ransport a ssociated p rotein) was required for bacterial growth in the presence of low concentrations of cysteine in vitro , but was not required for bacterial replication within the host cytosol. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • optimal
  • Accordingly, we harnessed the monensin-ATF4-signaling cascade to stimulate CSE expression by preconditioning cells with monensin, which restores cysteine metabolism and an optimal stress response in HD. (pnas.org)
  • coli
  • Awano N, Wada M, Mori H, Nakamori S, Takagi H (2005) Identification and functional analysis of Escherichia coli Cysteine Desulfhydrases. (springer.com)