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  • inhibition
  • However, with regard to this drug's promise for the therapy of advanced cancers, it is unclear whether the inhibition of COX-2 plays a dominant role, and this has become a controversial and intensely researched issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when the ability of all these compounds to kill tumor cells in cell culture was investigated, it turned out that the antitumor potency did not at all depend on whether or not the respective compound could inhibit COX-2, showing that inhibition of COX-2 was not required for the anticancer effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2012 results have been converging on the hypothesis that the adverse cardiovascular effects are most likely due to inhibition of COX-2 in blood vessels, which leads to a decrease in the production of prostacyclin in them. (wikipedia.org)
  • These drugs have at least a 200- to 300-fold selectivity for inhibition of COX-2 over COX-1. (uptodate.com)
  • tumor
  • In contrast, an increased expression of COX-1 was detected in 45% of breast carcinomas and was associated with smaller tumor size and negative nodal status. (hu-berlin.de)
  • (ahajournals.org)
  • COX-2 expression is strongly correlated with increased tumor microvasculature density and plays an important role in inhibiting apoptosis, stimulating angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell metastasis and invasion. (nih.gov)
  • NSAIDS
  • Versuche mit COX Inhibitoren (NSAIDs) zeigten im Tiermodell eine deutliche Reduktion von Inzidenz und Größe der Tumoren in einer dosisabhängigen Weise. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Soon after the discovery of the mechanism of action of NSAIDs, strong indications emerged for alternative forms of COX, but little supporting evidence was found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the confirmation of COX-2 existence, the Dupont company had developed a compound, DuP-697, that was potent in many anti-inflammatory assays but did not have the ulcerogenic effects of NSAIDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enormous effort was spent on the development of NSAIDs between the 1960s and 1980 so there were numerous pharmacophores to test when COX-2 was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that inhibiting COX-2 leads to the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects, whereas those NSAIDs also inhibiting COX-1, particularly aspirin, may cause gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers in large doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • NSAID
  • If a COX-2 inhibitor is taken, a traditional NSAID (prescription or over-the-counter) should not be taken at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • arachidonic acid
  • The exact biosynthesis of NaGly is not completely understood, but there are two proposed pathways found in vitro for its biosynthesis: 1) enzymatically regulated conjugation of arachidonic acid and glycine and 2) the oxidative metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectivity
  • Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies for diaryl heterocyclic compounds have indicated that a cis-stilbene moiety and changes in the para-position of one of the aryl rings play an important role in COX-2 selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • analgesic
  • Hemicrania was mentioned in 1881 in The Therapeutic Gazette Vol. 2, by G.S.Davis, and the incident has been cited in King's American Dispensatory (1898 and later editions) in the description of the strong analgesic Jamaican Dogwood, a relatively low dose of which reportedly produced convulsions and prolonged respiratory depression over six hours in an elderly woman with this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Furthermore, cEGF-like domains can be divided in two subtypes (1 and 2) whereas all hEGF-like domains belong to one subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • cohort
  • The expression of COX-1 and -2 was determined by immunohistochemistry retrospectivly in a cohort of 221 women. (hu-berlin.de)
  • gene
  • The mouse COX-2 gene was cloned by UCLA scientist Dr. Harvey Herschman, a finding published in 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • (ahajournals.org)
  • COX-2 gene promoter haplotypes and prostate cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • However, little is known about the role that sequence variation of the COX-2 gene contributes to prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • prostate cancer risk
  • Zhang H, Xu Y, Zhang Z, Liu R, Ma B. Association between COX-2 rs2745557 polymorphism and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (springer.com)
  • overall survival
  • In univariate survival analysis a significant association between an increased expression of COX-2 and a decreased disease-free survival as well as decreased overall survival was found. (hu-berlin.de)
  • vitro
  • Methods and Results- We describe here that COX-2 is induced in retinal astrocytes in human diabetic retinopathy, in the murine and rat model of ischemic proliferative retinopathy in vivo, and in hypoxic astrocytes in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • Scientists
  • Scientists of the study had found out higher levels of Cox 2 in the oral mucosal cells of the mouth lining of the smokers than in people who are not smokers. (medindia.net)
  • expression
  • Eine erhöhte COX-2 Expression wurde in 36% der untersuchten Mammakarzinome festgestellt. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Eine erhöhte COX-1 Expression wurde in 45% der untersuchten Tumoren gefunden und korrelierte signifikant mit kleineren und nicht in regionäre Lymphknoten metastasierten Karzinomen. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In der univariaten Überlebensanalyse stellte sich eine positive COX-2 Expression im Gegensatz zur COX-1 sowohl im rezidivfreien Überleben als auch im Gesamtüberleben als prognostisch relevant heraus. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In der multivariaten Analyse erreichte eine erhöhte COX-2 Expression eine grenzwertige statistische Signifikanz als unabhängiger Parameter innerhalb des rezidivfreien Überlebens. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Eine erhöhte COX-1 Expression erreichte keinen statistisch signifikanten Einfluß auf die Prognose. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Aufgrund dieser Ergebnisse ist somit eine erhöhte COX-2 Expression im Mammakarzinom mit prognostisch ungünstigen Faktoren assoziiert. (hu-berlin.de)
  • mainly
  • It treats pain mainly by blocking COX-2 mostly in the central nervous system, but not much in the rest of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • The tobacco smoke had also been related to rise in production of two proteins that start an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) function that can lead to the production of the chemical Cox 2. (medindia.net)
  • role
  • Conclusion- These findings point to an important role for COX-2 in ischemic proliferative retinopathy, as in diabetes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 We hereby investigated the role of COX-2 in a nontumoral condition, namely ischemic proliferative retinopathy, using human retinal tissue and experimental proliferative ischemic retinopathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • compound
  • According to an article in the journal cancer Research, tobacco smoke have been linked with the rising levels of the chemical compound called Cox 2. (medindia.net)
  • aspirin
  • As an example of this "transcellular metabolic pathway", aspirin triggered resolvin Ds (AT-RvDs) re made by the initial conversion of DHA by aspirin-acetylated COX-2 in vascular endothelial cells to 17(R)-hydroxy-DHA which is then transferred to nearby neutrophils which then use ALOX5 to oxygenate the 17(R)-hydroxyl-DHA to AT-resolvin Ds. (wikipedia.org)