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  • growth
  • However, when analysing the subgroup of tumours lacking a pushing growth pattern (N=141), cyclin E was significantly associated with RFS, independent of histological grade and node status. (bmj.com)
  • tumor
  • Cyclin levels can easily be determined through immunohistological analysis of tumor biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the exact mechanism that explains how cyclin B1 becomes overexpressed is not very well understood, previous work has shown that down regulation of cyclin B1 can lead to tumor regression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin E is a prognostic marker in breast cancer, its altered expression increased with the increasing stage and grade of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the best known substrates of cyclin D/Cdk4 and -6 is the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity against cyclin B1 tumor antigen delays development of spontaneous cyclin B1-positive tumors in p53 (-/-) mice. (nih.gov)
  • It is also possible that cyclin A2-CDK contributes to tumorigenesis by the phosphorylation of oncoproteins or tumor suppressors like p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell cycle
  • Expression of human cyclins through the cell cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins were originally named because their concentration varies in a cyclical fashion during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in level through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins can be divided into four classes based on their behavior in the cell cycle of vertebrate somatic cells and yeast cells: G1 cyclins, G1/S cyclins, S cyclins, and M cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclins also promote other activities to progress the cell cycle, such as centrosome duplication in vertebrates or spindle pole body in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in that the concentrations increase gradually (with no oscillation), throughout the cell cycle based on cell growth and the external growth-regulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of G cyclins coordinate cell growth with the entry to a new cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell changes in the cell cycle like the assembly of mitotic spindles and alignment of sister-chromatids along the spindles are induced by M cyclin- Cdk complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of cyclins detected immunocytochemically in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase), or in relation to initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase, can be measured by flow cytometry . (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC28 was identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which bound to cyclins and drove the cell through the various transitions of the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
  • Cyclins were originally discovered by R. Timothy Hunt in 1982 while studying the cell cycle of sea urchins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of cyclins in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase) is often measured by flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modulation of cyclin accumulation, and thereby Cdk activation, was proposed to be the overarching principle governing the passage through cell cycle phases. (springer.com)
  • However, endoreplication of trophoblast giant cells and megakaryocytes is severely impaired in the absence of cyclin E. Cyclin E-deficient cells proliferate actively under conditions of continuous cell cycling but are unable to reenter the cell cycle from the quiescent G(0) state. (uniprot.org)
  • These findings define a molecular function for E type cyclins in cell cycle reentry and reveal a differential requirement for cyclin E in normal versus oncogenic proliferation. (uniprot.org)
  • The crystal structure of human cyclin B". Cell Cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such regulatory component is cyclin A which plays a role in the regulation of two different cell cycle stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A is the only cyclin that regulates multiple steps of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin A has a second function in S phase, in addition to initiating DNA synthesis, Cyclin A ensures that DNA is replicated once per cell cycle by preventing the assembly of additional replication complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A possible trigger for activation is phosphorylation by cyclin A-Cdk, which functions before cyclin B1-Cdk in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, all stages of the cell cycle are chronologically separated in humans and are triggered by cyclin-Cdk complexes which are periodically expressed and partially redundant in function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with p34cdc2 and are essential components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B". J. Virol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male knockout mice lacking cyclin A1 are infertile owing to a cell cycle arrest before the first meiotic division (Liu et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cyclin-CDK complexes of earlier cell-cycle phase help activate cyclin-CDK complexes in later phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin L CDK levels remain relatively constant throughout the cell cycle and most regulation is post-translational. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAK activity is not regulated by known cell-cycle pathways and cyclin binding is the limiting step for CDK activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • But, with Cyclin E antibodies, we get cytoplasmic staining rather than nuclear staining which is mentioned in all the literature I have read. (bio.net)
  • The differential localization of human cyclins A and B is due to a cytoplasmic retention signal in cyclin B". EMBO J. 13 (16): 3772-81. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004). Cyclin A1 has an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): its localization in normal hematopoietic cells is nuclear, whereas in leukemic cells from AML patients and cell lines, it is predominantly cytoplasmic (Ekberg et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • homologues of cyclin
  • Since its initial discovery, homologues of cyclin A have been identified in numerous eukaryotes including Drosophila, Xenopus, mice, and in humans but has not been found in lower eukaryotes like yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most studied homologues of cyclin D are found in yeast and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation of cyclin
  • 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • cdc2
  • Results provide evidence that cdc2/cyclin B1 kinase activation was synchronous with the initial appearance of cytoskeletal lesions in mouse with Niemann-Pick disease type C. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Aberrant activation of Cdc2/cyclin B1 is involved in initiation of cytoskeletal pathology in murine Niemann-Pick disease type C. (nih.gov)