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  • regulatory
  • Mitogenic growth factors bind to their cognate receptors and initiate a cascade of events that culminate in the expression and assembly of different kinase holoenzymes composed of a regulatory. (springer.com)
  • the cyclin D. The activity of this kinase first appears in mid-G1 phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits including D-type cyclins and members of INK4 family of CDK inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influence of regulatory noncoding RNA molecules on apoptotic cell signaling has not been extensively explored, but increasing evidence points to a role for microRNAs (miRNA) in the control of intrinsic developmental and proliferative cell programs and ligand-induced cell signaling ( 19 - 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • G1 cyclins do not behave like the other cyclins, in that the concentrations increase gradually (with no oscillation), throughout the cell cycle based on cell growth and the external growth-regulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Including the orally dynamic little molecule PD0332991, which induces G1 arrest in main myeloma cells, prevents tumor development by particular inhibition of CDK4/6 and is currently in Stage 2 clinical tests , . (southpadremaps.com)
  • Specific inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 by PD 0332991 and associated antitumor activity in human tumor xenografts. (springer.com)
  • Lavia P, Mileo AM, Giordano A, Paggi MG (2003) Emerging roles of DNA tumor viruses in cell proliferation: new insights into genomic instability. (springer.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) binds to death receptors 4/5 and selectively induces caspase-dependent apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Members of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family play an important role in multiple cellular mechanisms, including cell proliferation, differentiation, septic shock, necrosis, and apoptosis ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cooperation between Cdk4 and p27kip1 in tumor development: a preclinical model to evaluate cell cycle inhibitors with therapeutic activity. (dkfz.de)
  • Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to activate the expression of the tumor suppressor gene TP53/p53, which leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the Rb protein family are tumor suppressors, which prevent uncontrolled cell proliferation that would occur during tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • p27kip1
  • One of the most critical CDK inhibitors involved in cancer pathogenesis is p27Kip1, which is involved primarily in inhibiting cyclin E-CDK2 complexes (and to a lesser extent cyclin D-CDK4 complexes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels of p27Kip1 (like all other CKIs) rise and fall in cells as they either exit or re-enter the cell cycle, these levels are not modulated at the transcriptional level, but by the actions of the SCFSkp2 complex in recognizing p27Kip1 and tagging it for destruction in the proteasome system. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that as cells enter G0 phase, reducing levels of Skp2 explain the increase in p27Kip1, creating an apparent inverse relationship between Skp2 and p27Kip1. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • This new role is associated with the balance of the oxidative and non-oxidative branches of the pentose pathway in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA interference screening approach has led to the discovery and characterization of several TRAIL pathway components in human cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The TRAIL signaling pathway is of particular interest in cancer therapeutics because it has been shown to be active in the selective natural killer cell-mediated control of tumors ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mad2 is a critical mediator of the chromosome instability observed upon Rb and p53 pathway inhibition.Cancer Cell 19(6):701-714. (dkfz.de)
  • The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • The CDK4/CyclinD1 complicated as an anti-cancer medication target continues to be additional validated in MCF-7 breasts cancers cells . (southpadremaps.com)
  • Cell cycle progression is tightly controlled in healthy organisms and often perturbed in human diseases, including, most prominently, many forms of cancers. (pnas.org)
  • Oncogene
  • Skp2 behaves as an oncogene in cell systems and is an established protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Defining the substrate specificity of cdk4 kinase-cyclin D1 complex. (springer.com)
  • Skp2 is the substrate recruiting component of the SCFSkp2 complex, which targets cell cycle control elements, such as p27 and p21. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate specificity of the activated complex is mainly established by the associated cyclin within the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have indicated that there is no difference between CDKCs cyclin D1-Cdk4/6, therefore, any unique properties can possibly be linked to substrate specificity or activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • This gene controls the progression of the cell cycle from G1 phase to S phase and the transition from G2 phase to mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells with nuclei divide, they divide in phases called G1 (growth), S (synthesis), G2 (growth), and M (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • During mitosis, the chromosomes, which have already duplicated, condense and attach to spindle fibers that pull one copy of each chromosome to opposite sides of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Producing three or more daughter cells instead of normal two is a mitotic error called tripolar mitosis or multipolar mitosis (direct cell triplication / multiplication). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other errors during mitosis can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) or cause mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, animal cells undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, whereas fungi undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most animal cells undergo a shape change, known as mitotic cell rounding, to adopt a near spherical morphology at the start of mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitosis was discovered in frog, rabbit, and cat cornea cells in 1873 and described for the first time by the Polish histologist Wacław Mayzel in 1875. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The primary result of mitosis and cytokinesis is the transfer of a parent cell's genome into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • coenocytic (a type of multinucleate condition) cells undergo mitosis without cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, a cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2), and finally divides (M) before restarting the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levels of S cyclins remain high, not only throughout S phase, but through G2 and early mitosis as well to promote early events in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiosis
  • Important exceptions include the gametes - sperm and egg cells - which are produced by meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, cyclin H-Cdk7 complexes may play a role in meiosis in male germ cells, and has been shown to be involved in transcriptional activities as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Notably, recent studies have shown that cyclin A creates a cellular environment that promotes microtubule detachment from kinetochores in prometaphase to ensure efficient error correction and faithful chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Subversion of the cellular machinery that controls replication of the infected host cell is a common activity of many viruses. (springer.com)
  • Although beneficial for the viral life cycle, virus-mediated alterations in normal cell cycle control mechanisms could have detrimental effects on cellular physiology and may ultimately contribute to pathologies associated with the viral infection, including cell transformation and cancer progression and maintenance. (springer.com)
  • Expression of cyclins in individual cells in relation to cellular DNA content (cell cycle phase) is often measured by flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • anaphase
  • As the cell elongates, corresponding daughter chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends of the cell and condense maximally in late anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • 2G12 is a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody against individual immunodeficiency pathogen type-1 (HIV-1) which has previously been proven to bind to a carbohydrate-dependent epitope on gp120. (healthandwellnesssource.org)