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  • gene
  • Complete hydatidiform moles consist only of paternal DNA, and thus the cells lack p57 expression as the gene is paternally imprinted (silenced). (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAK4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 kb, infected with retroviruses containing the p57 gene, exhibited premature slow heterogeneous growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The p57 gene has been found to be imprinted with preferential expression of the maternal allele (9) , suggesting that loss of the maternal allele by itself may severely reduce p57 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine
  • PAK4 is one of six members of the PAK family of serine/threonine kinases which are divided into group I (PAK1, PAK2 and PAK3) and group II (PAK4, PAK6 and PAK5/7). (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Three signaling pathways are involved in the UPR, and these are mediated by inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1, also known as ERN1), PKR-like ER resistant kinase (PERK, also known as EIF2AK3) and activation transcription factor 6 (ATF6), which act in concert to limit new protein synthesis and to increase the levels of chaperones. (biologists.org)
  • When the kinase MSK1 phosphorylates KAP1, the corepressors previously bound to the scaffold are released allowing MyoD and Mef2 to activate transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Recent work exploring p21 activation in response to DNA damage at a single-cell level have demonstrated that pulsatile p53 activity leads to subsequent pulses of p21, and that the strength of p21 activation is cell cycle phase dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endoreplication can be understood simply as a variant form of the mitotic cell cycle (G1-S-G2-M) in which mitosis is circumvented entirely, due to modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • p57 can bind JNK1/SAPK, a stress-related kinase, and block its activity, protecting against JNK1-regulated apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • Specifically it contains a Cy1 motif in the N-terminal half, and weaker Cy2 motif in the C-terminal domain that allow it to bind CDK in a region that blocks its ability to complex with cyclins and thus prevent CDK activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • advances
  • Here, we review recent advances in cell cycle-dependent cell fate determination and functional heterogeneity, and the application of cell cycle manipulation for cell fate conversion. (springer.com)
  • populations
  • DNA and RNA analysis of mass populations and individual subclones of conditionally immortal HMEC line 184A1 showed that continued growth of conditionally immortal cells with critically short telomeres was repeatedly accompanied by loss of the expressed p57 allele and transient expression of the allele imprinted previously. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3 kb prevented both the slow heterogeneous growth phase and accumulation of p57 in cycling populations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • stable
  • Cell cycle arrest (in which myoblasts would indicate the conclusion of myogenesis) is dependent on the continuous and stable repression of the D1 cyclin. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • Studies of p53 dependent cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage identified p21 as the primary mediator of downstream cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Similar to PAK1, PAK4-signaling dependent cellular functions also regulate both physiologic and disease processes such as cancer as PAK4 is overexpressed and/or hyperstimulated in human cancer, at-large. (wikipedia.org)
  • Permits
  • As such, p21 acts as an effective inhibitor of DNA S-phase DNA synthesis though permits NER, leading to the proposal that p21 acts to preferentially select polymerase processivity factors depending on the context of DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • identification
  • Anti-p57 has been used as an aide in identification of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) (no nuclear labeling of cytotrophoblasts and stromal cells) from partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) in which both cytotrophoblasts and stromal cells stain. (biotium.com)
  • domain
  • The core domains of PAK4 include, a kinase domain in the C-terminal region, a p21-binding domain (PBD), and a newly defined auto-inhibitory domain (AID) or an AID-like pseudosubstrate sequence (PS) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • The core domains of PAK4 include, a kinase domain in the C-terminal region, a p21-binding domain (PBD), and a newly defined auto-inhibitory domain (AID) or an AID-like pseudosubstrate sequence (PS) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • These findings are discussed in relation to the role of SPRY1 as an inhibitor of ERK/MAPK signaling and to a possible explanation of its effect on cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The canonical Restriction Point model suggests that cells are born into a state in which they are uncommitted to the cell cycle, but will activate cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and cross the Restriction Point several hours later if sufficient nutrients are available. (pnas.org)
  • Cells pre-Restriction Point are uncommitted to the cell cycle and can arrest at the Restriction Point, whereas cells post-Restriction Point are no longer dependent on mitogens and will complete one round of division, even in the absence of mitogens. (pnas.org)
  • Overexpression of p57 Kip 2 has been previously shown to prevent apoptotic cell death in vitro by inhibiting stress-activated kinases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies of p53 dependent cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage identified p21 as the primary mediator of downstream cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work exploring p21 activation in response to DNA damage at a single-cell level have demonstrated that pulsatile p53 activity leads to subsequent pulses of p21, and that the strength of p21 activation is cell cycle phase dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell cycle arrest (in which myoblasts would indicate the conclusion of myogenesis) is dependent on the continuous and stable repression of the D1 cyclin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endoreplication can be understood simply as a variant form of the mitotic cell cycle (G1-S-G2-M) in which mitosis is circumvented entirely, due to modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is phosphorylated by cyclin A/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 during the S-phase of the cell cycle and possesses both activator and repressor activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • We observed dose-dependent statistically significant radiation-induced changes in the expression of p21 in HLE cells in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • In vitro evidence has shown that cyclin D-CDK binding of CIP/KIP is not restricted to p21 and p27 and can also be performed by p57. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib constitute novel therapeutic agents that are currently in clinical use and in clinical trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • pathway
  • BRAF V600E leads to the constitutive activation of the RAF-MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway which represents the key event in the molecular pathogenesis of HCL. (bloodjournal.org)
  • specifically
  • Specifically, p21 has a high affinity for the PIP-box binding region on PCNA, binding of p21 to this region is proposed to block the binding of processivity factors necessary for PCNA dependent S-phase DNA synthesis, but not PCNA dependent nucleotide excision repair (NER). (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Studies have also demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4Cdt2 degrades p21 in a PCNA dependent manner over S-phase, necessary to prevent p21 dependent re-replication, as well as in response to UV irradiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactive
  • IRAK4 kinase-inactive knockin (IRAK4KI) mice were bred onto ApoE −/− mice to generate IRAK4KI/ApoE −/− mice. (jimmunol.org)