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  • cellular
  • Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phases of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. (frontiersin.org)
  • interaction
  • Phosphorylation by p38, but not Cdks, triggers an interaction between Rb and the human homologue of murine double minute 2: Hdm2), leading to degradation of Rb, release of E2F1 and cell death. (wustl.edu)
  • time
  • For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. (qiagen.com)
  • Over time, cells in the control group accumulated in G 0 / G 1 phase. (frontiersin.org)
  • activity
  • The Cignal E2F Reporter Assay Kit is designed to monitor the activity of E2F-regulated signaling pathways in cultured cells. (qiagen.com)
  • PharmaMar S.A.U., Madrid, Spain) is a promising anticancer agent that has demonstrated clinical activity in many drug-resistant cancer cell lines, and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for advanced soft tissue sarcoma. (frontiersin.org)
  • complexes
  • TBDTs are energy-dependent gated stations that usually transportation large metallic complexes which cannot match through porins, and so are as well scarce to enter by mass-action-driven transportation. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Kip1 down-regulation occurs precisely within the intervall between surgery and onset of DNA synthesis which supports the hypothesis that it mediates activation of G0/0S-phase Cdk/cyclin-complexes and re-entry of hepatocytes into the cell cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes-complexes of tightly coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for proper cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein can be found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, however most of the active complexes are found in the nucleus of proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell changes in the cell cycle like the assembly of mitotic spindles and alignment of sister-chromatids along the spindles are induced by M cyclin- Cdk complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, the level of Sic1, a stoichiometric inhibitor of Clb-CDK complexes in budding yeast, was shown to be particularly important in irreversible G1-S transition by irreversibly activating S phase kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Producing three or more daughter cells instead of normal two is a mitotic error called tripolar mitosis or multipolar mitosis (direct cell triplication / multiplication). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most animal cells undergo a shape change, known as mitotic cell rounding, to adopt a near spherical morphology at the start of mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most human cells are produced by mitotic cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in C. elegans revealed the specific roles of mitotic cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer cells "global hypomethylation" due to disruption in DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) may promote mitotic recombination and chromosome rearrangement, ultimately resulting in aneuploidy when the chromosomes fail to separate properly during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells enter the G0 phase semi-permanently and are considered post-mitotic, e.g., some liver, kidney, and stomach cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitotic Exit is an important transition point that signifies the end of mitosis and the onset of new G1 phase for a cell, and the cell needs to rely on specific control mechanisms to ensure that once it exits mitosis, it never returns to mitosis until it has gone through G1, S, and G2 phases and passed all the necessary checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a normal eukaryotic cell, mitotic exit is irreversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many speculations were made with regard to the control mechanisms employed by a cell to promote the irreversibility of mitotic exit in a eukaryotic model organism, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, experiments using budding yeast cells with cdc28-as1, a INM-PP1 (ATP analog)-sensitive Cdk allele, proved that destruction of B-type cyclins (Clb) is not necessary for triggering irreversible mitotic exit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targets
  • Skp2 is the substrate recruiting component of the SCFSkp2 complex, which targets cell cycle control elements, such as p27 and p21. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Other errors during mitosis can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) or cause mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cdk- G1/S cyclin complex begins to induce the initial processes of DNA replication, primarily by arresting systems that prevent S phase Cdk activity in G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mediates the production of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Pulmonary arterial cell cultures treated with fasudil showed a significant increase in eNOS mRNA levels in a dose dependent manner, and the half-life of eNOS mRNA increased 2-folds. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK6
  • There are additional functions of CDK6 not associated with its kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, CDK6 is involved in the differentiation of T cells, acting as an inhibitor of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK6 has also been found to be important in the development of other cell lines, for example, CDK6 has a role in the alteration of the morphology of astrocytes and in the development of other stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in the metabolic control of cells have revealed yet another role of CDK6. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteolysis
  • UPS proteolysis plays a major role in responses of cancer cells to stimulatory signals that are critical for the development of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc2
  • Working in fission yeast, Nurse identified the gene cdc2, which controls the transition from G1 to S, when the cell grows in preparation for the duplication of DNA, and G2 to M, when the cell divides. (wikipedia.org)
  • small molecule
  • A8326 AZD-5438 AZD5438 is a potent small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1, 2 and 9 with half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 16 nmol/L, 6 nmol/L and 20 nmol/L respectively. (apexbt.com)
  • Cyclacel is a biopharmaceutical pioneer developing small molecule drugs that target various phases of cell cycle control for the treatment of cancer and other serious diseases, particularly those of high unmet medical need. (cyclacel.com)
  • CDKIs
  • Transient knockdown of RhoA in FaDu cells decreased expression of Skp2, enhanced the level of Cip/Kip CDKIs, and attenuated S-phase entry. (garvan.org.au)
  • cytokinesis
  • In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rest of the cell may then continue to divide by cytokinesis to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • coenocytic (a type of multinucleate condition) cells undergo mitosis without cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Ho CM, Huang YJ, Chen TC, Huang SH, Liu FS, Chang Chien CC, Yu MH, Mao TL, Wang TY, Hsieh CY: Pure-type clear cell carcinoma of the ovary as a distinct histological type and improved survival in patients treated with paclitaxelplatinum-based chemotherapy in pure-type advanced disease. (springermedizin.de)
  • Sugiyama T, Kamura T, Kigawa J, Terakawa N, Kikuchi Y, Kita T, Suzuki M, Sato I, Taguchi K: Clinical characteristics of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: a distinct histological type with poor prognosis and resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. (springermedizin.de)
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncogene
  • Skp2 behaves as an oncogene in cell systems and is an established protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • Notably, recent studies have shown that cyclin A creates a cellular environment that promotes microtubule detachment from kinetochores in prometaphase to ensure efficient error correction and faithful chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • During mitosis, the chromosomes, which have already duplicated, condense and attach to spindle fibers that pull one copy of each chromosome to opposite sides of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • CDI offers several terminally differentiated cell types as catalog products: iCell® Cardiomyocytes, iCell Neurons, iCell Endothelial Cells, and iCell Hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • In kinetic partitioning, Hsp70s repetitively bind and release substrates in cycles that maintain low concentrations of free substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In local unfolding, the binding and release cycles induce localized unfolding in the substrate, which helps to overcome kinetic barriers for folding to the native state. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • The main rad3 effector is the kinase chk1, which is required for the G2-M arrest in response to DNA-damaging agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • They may directly activate B cells, regardless of their antigenic specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least some cyclins contain a hydrophobic patch which may directly interact with substrates, conferring target specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction point
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The point where mitogens are no longer needed to move the cell cycle forward is called the "restriction point" and depends on cyclins to be passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1 checkpoint is controlled most directly by mitogens: further cell cycle progression does not need mitogens to continue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G2-M DNA damage checkpoint is an important cell cycle checkpoint in eukaryotic organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of cdc25 arrests cells in G2, but still allows activation of the G2-M checkpoint, implicating activation of wee1 and deactivation of cdc25 as important regulatory steps in the checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Rp9 variant is quite common in human and mouse cells, lacks 9 amino acids in the repression domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Δ324 found at low levels in human and mouse cells - an alternative splice variant encoding an 88kDa protein lacking zinc fingers 6 and 7 Δ105 variant is unique to mice, and results in a protein truncated by 105 amino acids at the acidic C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 145kDa isoform is the most-studied, encoding 1051 amino acids, although there are many EVI1 fusion products detectable in cells expressing EVI1. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Cells had been transfected with hCOX2 by Lipofectamine 2000. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • pathway
  • Conversely, activation of p16 through the ROS pathway, DNA damage, or senescence leads to the buildup of p16 in tissues and is implicated in aging of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • P53, combined with the Ras pathway, downregulate cyclin D1, a cyclin-dependent kinase if they are not stimulated by the presence of mitogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic cells
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • expression
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • Viral tropism for the decidua and placenta is then dependent on viral entry receptor expression in these tissues as well as on the maternal immune response to the virus. (jci.org)
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • spindle
  • While the chromosomes are drawn to each side of the cell, the non-kinetochore spindle fibers push against each other, in a ratcheting action, that stretches the cell into an oval. (wikipedia.org)