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  • interact
  • At least some cyclins contain a hydrophobic patch which may directly interact with substrates, conferring target specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenes
  • In this context, miRNAs can play a functionality of either tumor suppressors or oncogenes (oncomirs) [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • cell cycle
  • Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a cell cycle-regulated enzyme with peak expression in the S phase during DNA synthesis, and it is an attractive biomarker of cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As one example, we have only recently learned that loss of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-α in adult human β-cells, with the resultant loss of ability to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase and methylation (Ezh2) and downstream cell cycle (p16) machinery, may underlie the refractoriness of human β-cells to proliferation ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • P14ARF induces cell cycle arrest in G2 phase and subsequent apoptosis in a P53-dependent and P53-independent manner, and thus is regarded as a tumor suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • P16/Rb pathway collaborates with the mitogenic signaling cascade for the induction of reactive oxygen species, which activates the protein kinase C delta, leading to an irreversible cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clb5 and Clb6 are B-type, S-phase cyclins in yeast that assist in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • This is particularly surprising because in contrast to the intractable quiescence of adult human β-cells, fetal and neonatal human β-cells can and do replicate transiently from ~5 months antepartum to ~6 months postpartum ( 13 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • activity
  • It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18. (curehunter.com)
  • For example, reduction of cyclin D expression through antisense technology causes a concomitant decline in cyclin D-dependent kinase activity and results in inhibition of tumor growth, abolition of tumorigenicity, or, in some instances, tumor cell death ( 24 -27 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Whereas serum TK1 activity is elevated in cancer patients compared with healthy individuals and prognostic in patients with breast and other cancers [ 6 - 11 ], in very few studies have researchers evaluated the utility of serum TK1 for monitoring responses to cancer therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • G1/S cyclin-Cdk1 activity leads to preparation for S phase entry (e.g., duplication of centromeres or the spindle pole body), and a rise in the S cyclins (Clb5,6 in S. cerevisiae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cln1,2 and/or Clb5,6-Cdk1 complex activity leads to a sudden drop in Sic1 levels, allowing for coherent S phase entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • furthermore, cyclins impart specificity to Cdk1 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • this phosphorylation is thought to alter ATP orientation, preventing efficient kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only until Sic1 inhibition is overcome can Clb5,6 activity occur and S phase initiation may begin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clb5
  • Clb5 and Clb6 bind and activate Cdk1, and high levels of these cyclins are required for entering S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clb5 and Clb6 levels rise during G1 (earlier than other B-type cyclins) and stay high throughout S and M phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the other B-type cyclins, that negatively regulate SCB-binding factor (SBF) and MCB-binding factor (MBF), Clb5 and Clb6 can activate the G1/S transition in the absence of the G1 cyclins Cln1,2,3. (wikipedia.org)
  • In double mutants for Clb5 and Clb6, the onset of S-phase (rather than the length) is significantly delayed, but will eventually occur as a side result of the buildup of other mitotic cyclins (Clb1-4). (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)
  • This destruction of M cyclins leads to the final events of mitosis (e.g., spindle disassembly, mitotic exit). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Performing Western blotting, we found that RB phosphorylation and the expression of Cyclin D are significantly higher in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cell lines as well as anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cell lines, compared with normal thyroid cell line and follicular thyroid cancer cell line. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Mantle cell lymphoma is excluded due to the lack of CD5 and cyclin-D1 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • The frequency of these alterations alone clearly implies that abrogation of the G 1 checkpoint or acceleration of the Cdk4/cyclin D pathway provides a distinct advantage to cancer cells in terms of proliferation and perhaps survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This kinase has been shown to play a role in cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • This destruction of M cyclins leads to the final events of mitosis (e.g., spindle disassembly, mitotic exit). (wikipedia.org)
  • This kinase is phosphorylated by rad3 between S phase and mitosis, implicating its specific role in G2 arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • TNF-bound TNFR1 recruits TNFR-associated death domain protein (TRADD), an adaptor protein that serves as the platform for additional recruitment of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) and Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), initiating both NF-κB activation and apoptosis induction ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • They differ in that PGE2 has, while PGE1 lacks, a double bound between carbons 5 and 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Furthermore, high cellular degrees of COX are generally used being a marker for malignant breasts cancer tumor (6,10,12). (cancercurehere.com)
  • The ubiquitination system was initially characterised as an ATP-dependent proteolytic system present in cellular extracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • moves
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • doctors treated that but after 6 months she again diagnosed with cancer. (unews.top)
  • We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10 −6 ). (springer.com)
  • cells
  • Δ324 found at low levels in human and mouse cells - an alternative splice variant encoding an 88kDa protein lacking zinc fingers 6 and 7 Δ105 variant is unique to mice, and results in a protein truncated by 105 amino acids at the acidic C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)