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  • mRNA
  • Cyclin D2 accumulates at the very basal tip of the RG cell (i.e., the basal endfoot) via a unique cis -regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of its mRNA. (wiley.com)
  • The daughter cell that inherits Cyclin D2 mRNA maintains its self-renewal capability, while its sibling undergoes differentiation. (wiley.com)
  • In eukaryotes, overexpression of translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) leads to an increased level of cyclin D protein and increased amount of cyclin D mRNA outside of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • D1 receptor agonism and D2 receptor blockade also increases mRNA translation by phosphorylating ribosomal protein s6, resulting in activation of mTOR. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (genetex.com)
  • The abundance of cyclins is generally regulated by protein synthesis and degradation through an APC/C dependent pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only are cyclin B-Cdk1 complexes important for the transition into M phase, but these CDKCs play a role in the following regulatory and structural processes: Chromosomal condensation Fragmentation of Golgi network Breakdown of nuclear lamina Inactivation of the cyclin B-Cdk1 complex through the degradation of cyclin B is necessary for exit out of the M phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Enforced expression of cyclin D2 enhances the proliferative potential of myeloid progenitors, accelerates in vivo myeloid reconstitution, and promotes rescue of mice from lethal myeloablation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • pathways
  • In ovarian granulosa cells, cyclin D2 is specifically induced by FSH via a cyclic-AMP-dependent pathway, indicating that expression of the various D-type cyclins is under control of distinct intracellular signalling pathways. (jax.org)
  • Cyclin D is regulated by the downstream pathway of mitogen receptors via the Ras/MAP kinase and the β-catenin-Tcf/LEF pathways and PI3K. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAK activity is not regulated by known cell-cycle pathways and cyclin binding is the limiting step for CDK activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • In general, all stages of the cell cycle are chronologically separated in humans and are triggered by cyclin-Cdk complexes which are periodically expressed and partially redundant in function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though cyclin D levels in proliferating cells are sustained as long as the growth factors are present, a key player for G1/S transition is active cyclin D-Cdk4/6 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. pombe and S. cerevisiae are most known for their association with a single Cdk, Cdc2 and Cdc28 respectively, which complexes with several different cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, Cdk1 (also known as human Cdc2), the first human CDK to be identified, associates with cyclins A or B. CyclinA/B-Cdk1 complexes drive the transition between G2 phase and M phase, as well as early M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During G2 phase, cyclin A is degraded, while cyclin B is synthesized and cyclin B-Cdk1 complexes form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, cyclin H-Cdk7 complexes may play a role in meiosis in male germ cells, and has been shown to be involved in transcriptional activities as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-CDK complexes of earlier cell-cycle phase help activate cyclin-CDK complexes in later phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferative
  • Competitive repopulation studies demonstrated that overexpression of cyclin D2 accelerated myeloid reconstitution following transplantation, and, in agreement with this, cyclin D2-transduced myeloid progenitors showed an enhanced proliferative response to cytokines in vitro. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, overexpression of cyclin D2 confers myeloid progenitors with an enhanced proliferative and granulocyte potential, facilitating rapid myeloid engraftment and rescue of lethally ablated recipients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CDKs
  • While levels of CDKs remain fairly constant throughout the cell cycle, cyclin levels fluctuate. (wikipedia.org)
  • localization
  • A similar localization pattern of Cyclin D2 protein has been observed in the human fetal cortical primordium, suggesting a common mechanism of maintenance of neural progenitors that may be evolutionarily conserved across higher mammals such as primates. (wiley.com)
  • Cyclin B1 and B2 can localize Cdk1 to the nucleus and the Golgi, respectively, through a localization sequence outside the CDK-binding region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cln3
  • In S. cerevisiae, the association of Cdc28 with cyclins, Cln1, Cln2, or Cln3, results in the transition from G1 phase to S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Recombinant human cyclin D2 protein. (bosterbio.com)
  • The hypoplasia seen in cyclin D2(-/-) ovaries and testes prompted us to examine human cancers deriving from corresponding tissues. (jax.org)
  • We find that some human ovarian and testicular tumours contain high levels of cyclin D2 messenger RNA. (jax.org)
  • In viruses, like Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (Herpesvirus saimiri) and Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8/Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) cyclin D homologues have acquired new functions in order to manipulate the host cell's metabolism to the viruses' benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma miR-26a has been found to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, in part through direct downregulation of cyclin D2 and cyclin E2. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • The resulting dopamine receptor heterodimers include: D1-adenosine A1 D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer D1-D3 dopamine receptor heteromer D2-D4 dopamine receptor heteromer D2-adenosine A2A D2-ghrelin receptor D2sh-TAAR1 (an autoreceptor heterodimer) D4-adrenoceptor α1B D4-adrenoceptor β1 Dopamine receptor D1 and Dopamine receptor D5 are Gs coupled receptors that stimulate adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP, increasing intracellular calcium among other cAMP mediated processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The D1 and D5 receptors are members of the D1-like family of dopamine receptors, whereas the D2, D3 and D4 receptors are members of the D2-like family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D2-like family receptors are coupled to the G protein Giα, which directly inhibits the formation of cAMP by inhibiting the enzyme adenylyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D2 class of receptors produce the opposite effect, as they are Gαi coupled receptors, and block the activity of adenylyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Interestingly, compared to wild-type, the L153S mutant resulted in a more effective cell cycle-promotion and increased BMI-1, c-Myc and cyclin D2 transcript levels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cyclin D2 is an FSH-responsive gene involved in gonadal cell prolifer" by P Sicinski, J L. Donaher et al. (jax.org)
  • THE D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) are critical governors of the cell-cycle clock apparatus during the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle. (jax.org)
  • Herein, overexpression of D-type cyclins, promoting G0/G1 to S transition, was investigated as an alternative approach to accelerate myeloid reconstitution following stem cell transplantation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of the cell cycle-driving molecule, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), in HCC was significantly reduced by the treatments with vitamin K2, K3 and K5. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and cyclin D3 are expressed in most proliferating cells and the relative amounts expressed differ in various cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the cyclin, various portions of the cell cycle are affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin L CDK levels remain relatively constant throughout the cell cycle and most regulation is post-translational. (wikipedia.org)
  • redundant
  • These three D-type cyclins are expressed in overlapping, apparently redundant fashion in the proliferating tissues. (jax.org)
  • levels
  • Zymosan A also raises cyclin D2 levels suggesting a role for the latter in macrophage activation besides proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without p27 and p21, cyclin D levels are reduced and the complex is not formed at detectable levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Ruiling Zhang and team from Xinxiang Medical University explored the correlation between cyclin-dependent kinase 5 expression in the hippocampus and neurological impairments following prenatal ethanol exposure, and found that prenatal ethanol exposure could affect cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and its activator p35 in the hippocampus of offspring rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cells
  • Early Cycling-independent Changes to p27, Cyclin D2, and Cyclin D3 in Differentiating Mouse Embryonal Carcinoma Cells -- Preclíková et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin D2-deficient females are sterile owing to the inability of ovarian granulosa cells to proliferate normally in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whereas mutant males display hypoplastic testes. (jax.org)