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  • PRAD1
  • Considerable effort directed towards the identification of G1 cyclins has led to the isolation of cyclin D, cyclin C and cyclin E. Of these, cyclin D corresponds to a putative human oncogene, designated PRAD1, which maps at the site of the Bcl1 rearrangement in certain lymphomas and leukemias. (scbt.com)
  • proteins
  • When cyclin binds to Cdk, Cdk becomes activated and phosphorylates serine and threonine on other proteins causing the activation and degradation of other proteins allowing the cell to transition through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumorigenesis
  • Although the cyclin D1 gene is not amplified in human colon cancer, the expression of cyclin D1 is elevated in about 30% of human adenocarcinomas and in adenomatous polyps of the colon ( 28 , 29 ), and expression of anti-sense cyclin D1 cDNA abolished the growth of SW480 colon cancer cells in nude mice, indicating a critical role for cyclin D1 in tumorigenesis ( 30 ). (pnas.org)
  • degradation
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitors
  • Inhibitors of β-catenin activation, wild-type adenomatous polyposis coli, axin, and the cytoplasmic tail of cadherin suppressed cyclin D1 promoter activity in colon cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • deregulation
  • Thus, we show that TGF-beta signaling and Smad adaptor ELF suppress human hepatocarcinogenesis, potentially through cyclin D1 deregulation. (nih.gov)
  • cancer
  • Cyclin D1 overexpression is correlated with shorter cancer patient survival and increased metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Age Dependent Switching Role of Cyclin D1 in Breast Cancer," Analytical Cellular Pathology , vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 179-185, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to its role in regulating the cell cycle, cyclin D1 induces Dicer and thereby promotes the maturation of miRNA," says lead researcher Richard Pestell, M.D., Ph.D., Director of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University and Chair of the Department of Cancer Biology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Furthermore, the group showed that many cancer patients encode a form of cyclin D1 that evades negative feedback from the non coding genome. (bio-medicine.org)
  • They found that patients with the luminal A subtype of breast cancer had increased levels of expression of both cyclin D1 and Dicer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the possibility that the cyclin D1 gene is a target for the β-catenin/LEF-1 complex and show that the cyclin D1 promoter contains a LEF-1 binding sequence that is activated in human colon cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • Disruption of transforming growth factor-beta signaling through beta-spectrin ELF leads to hepatocellular cancer through cyclin D1 activation. (nih.gov)
  • 1999
  • Due to this property of D-cyclins, they are regarded as mitogenic sensors that relay signals from the extracellular environment to the core cell cycle machinery ( Sherr and Roberts, 1999 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • binds
  • Independent of CDK, cyclin D1 binds to nuclear receptors (including estrogen receptor α, thyroid hormone receptor, PPARγ and AR ) to regulate cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D1 also binds to histone acetylases and histone deacetylases to regulate cell proliferation and cell differentiation genes in the early to mid-G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Cyclin D1 as well as D2 and D3 have central roles in linking exogenous growth regulating stimuli with the cycling machinery of cells. (novusbio.com)
  • The group also examined cells lacking Dicer, and noted many similarities between Dicer-lacking and cyclin D1-lacking cells, in addition to failure of miRNA processing, suggesting a deeper connection between these two processes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • β-catenin and cyclin D1 levels were elevated in PS1-deficient cells. (nih.gov)
  • It reduces the growth of new cells by inhibiting cyclin D1. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • Methods Epidermal thickness, mitotic and apoptotic indices (MI, AI), as well as the percentages of epidermal cell nuclei positive for Ki-67 and cyclins D1, B and A were calculated. (wiley.com)
  • Cyclin D1 was negative or expressed in a low percentage of nuclei in psoriasis before therapy (0·78), whereas it was always negative after therapy. (wiley.com)
  • human
  • Two additional human type D cyclins, as well as their mouse homologs, have been identified. (scbt.com)
  • Cyclin D1 is markedly increased in human HCC ( b and d ) seen here in lower and higher power fields compared with normal liver ( a and c ). (nih.gov)
  • induction
  • NMB or NMBR silencing inhibited M-CSF (zeige CSF1R Proteine )/ c-Fms (zeige CSF1R Proteine )-mediated downstream signaling pathways like activation of ERK (zeige EPHB2 Proteine ) and Akt (zeige AKT1 Proteine ) and induction of D-type cyclins, cyclin D1 and D2. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • mitogenic
  • Increasing cyclin D1 levels during the G1 phase is induced by mitogenic growth factors primarily through Ras mediated pathways, and hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • p16 acts as a tumor suppressor by binding to CDK4/6 and preventing its interaction with cyclin D. This interaction ultimately inhibits the downstream activities of transcription factors, such as E2F1, and arrests cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is thought to be caused by mPer2 circadian deregulation of common tumor suppression and cell cycle regulation genes, such as Cyclin D1, Cyclin A, Mdm-2, and Gadd45α, as well as the transcription factor c-myc, which is directly controlled by circadian regulators through E box-mediated reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies performed by Dr. Weinstein in the 1990s of the human gene cyclin D1 showed that variations of the gene could foster the growth of cancer cells and tumor formation in the breast, esophagus, prostate and stomach, which led to theories that drugs targeted at cyclin D1 could help prevent the development of these cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell cycle
  • The point where mitogens are no longer needed to move the cell cycle forward is called the "restriction point" and depends on cyclins to be passed. (wikipedia.org)