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  • 1994
  • CCNF gene was first discovered in 1994 by Elledge laboratory while experimenting with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • Activated TGF-β complexes with other factors to form a serine/threonine kinase complex that binds to TGF-β receptors, which is composed of both type 1 and type 2 receptor subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Macrophages can also endocytose IgG-bound latent TGF-β complexes that are secreted by plasma cells and then release active TGF-β into the extracellular fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • 2001). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Leland Hartwell and Tim Hunt for their discoveries of protein molecules that control the division (duplication) of cells in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Independent of CDK, cyclin D1 binds to nuclear receptors (including estrogen receptor α, thyroid hormone receptor, PPARγ and AR ) to regulate cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D1 also binds to histone acetylases and histone deacetylases to regulate cell proliferation and cell differentiation genes in the early to mid-G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms include covalent modifications of histones, ATP hydrolysis-dependent chromatin remodeling activities, substitutions of the core (major) histones with their related variant (minor) histones, and DNA methylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • FLP recognizes a distinct cis -regulatory element that overlaps with that of the cell cycle activator E2F-DP in the CDKB1;1 promoter, suggesting that these MYBs may also modulate E2F-DP pathways. (plantcell.org)
  • These expression patterns correspond with their roles in the DNA replication cycle of their respective genomes, and thus indicate different regulatory mechanisms affecting each isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the development of neuroectodermal progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Up to 10,000-fold of compaction of the chromatin is achieved during mitosis, allowing faithful segregation of mitotic chromosomes to daughter cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In particular, we show that FLP represses the expression of the mitosis-inducing factor CDKB1;1 , which, along with CDKB1;2 , is specifically required both for the last division in the stomatal pathway and for cell overproliferation in flp mutants. (plantcell.org)
  • Neural bHLH genes have different functions depending on: the sensitivity to lateral inhibition, which determines if a cell becomes epidermal or neuronal, and whether the gene is expressed in the CNS before or after the terminal mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells with nuclei divide, they divide in phases called G1 (growth), S (synthesis), G2 (growth), and M (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme is considered as a universal therapeutic target of cancer because of its preferential expression in cancer cells and its presence in 90 % of tumors. (springer.com)
  • However, in colon tumors compared to adjacent normal-appearing colonic mucosa, there are about 600 to 800 heavily methylated CpG islands in promoters of genes in the tumors while these CpG islands are not methylated in the adjacent mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • High level expression of this gene was observed in ovarian and testicular tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activates
  • In this cell type, p53 activates numerous microRNAs (like miR-302a, miR-302b, miR-302c, and miR-302d) that directly inhibit the p21 expression in hESCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the binding of TGF-β, the type 2 receptor kinase phosphorylates and activates the type 1 receptor kinase that activates a signaling cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • P16/Rb pathway collaborates with the mitogenic signaling cascade for the induction of reactive oxygen species, which activates the protein kinase C delta, leading to an irreversible cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • however, the alterations in molecular pattern of functional genes during parathyroid tumorigenesis have not been unraveled. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conclusions The presented gene expression analysis provides a differential molecular characterization of PG adenoma and hyperplasia pathologies, advancing our understanding of their etiology. (deepdyve.com)
  • At the molecular level, in fact, a gradual weakening of the cellular processes regulating cardiovascular homeostasis occurs in aging cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using molecular tools it was possible to isolate the first four genes of this complex: achaete (ac), scute (sc), lethal of scute (lsc) and asense (ase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive studies have demonstrated that cell cycle states determine cell fates, because cells in different cell cycle states are characterized by distinct molecular features and functional outputs. (springer.com)
  • Cell Cycle Control: Methods in Molecular Biology (Methods and Protocols), Vol. 1170. (springer.com)
  • Its protein, cyclin F, is made up of 786 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 87 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • A pathway-based analysis showed that genes significantly altered by CRY2 knockdown formed networks associated with immune response and hematologic system development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin D1 is degraded via an ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway at the end of the S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK1
  • With his postdoc Melanie Lee, Nurse also found the corresponding gene, CDK1, in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Damage of DNA, hence potentially deleterious mutations, caused by such factors as UV, free radicals, and active transcription, needs to be repaired before these mutations are passed to daughter cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • No somatic mutations of the CaSR gene have been identified in sporadic HPT so far, although its role in familial HPT is well documented (5). (deepdyve.com)
  • In cancers, loss of expression of genes occurs about 10 times more frequently by transcription silencing (caused by epigenetic promoter hypermethylation of CpG islands) than by mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that certain CCNF mutations caused increased ubiquitination of TDP-43 protein in cells, which is a major feature of ALS and FTD pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, cyclin F through RRM2 and CP110 control centrosome duplication and reduce the frequency of genomic mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • They each have an N-terminal signal peptide of 20-30 amino acids that they require for secretion from a cell, a pro-region called latency associated peptide (LAP - Alias: Pro-TGF beta 1, LAP/TGF beta 1), and a 112-114 amino acid C-terminal region that becomes the mature TGF-β molecule following its release from the pro-region by proteolytic cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiation
  • Telomerase activity is downregulated via decreases in hTERT mRNA but not TEP1 mRNA or hTERT during the differentiation of leukemic cells. (springer.com)
  • They are grouped in distinct families on the basis of closer sequence similarities in the bHLH domain: Genes of the ASC and Ngn families, and possibly members of the family of ato homologues, have a similar proneural function in vertebrates to that of their Drosophila counterparts, whereas other neural bHLH genes are involved in specifying neuronal fates or in neuronal differentiation, but have no proneural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem/progenitor cell has long been regarded as a central cell type in development, homeostasis, and regeneration, largely owing to its robust self-renewal and multilineage differentiation abilities. (springer.com)
  • inhibit
  • Proneural bHLH transcription factors, not only drive neurogenesis by activating the expression of a cascade of neuronal genes, but they inhibit the expression of glial genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proneural genes promote neurogenesis and inhibit gliogenesis but some neurogenic factors can regulate both of these processes, depending on the proneural genes concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown to inhibit the activation of p38 and JNK kinase cascades induced by environmental stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • Atherosclerosis and heart failure are particularly correlated with aging-related cardiovascular senescence, that is, the inability of cells to progress in the mitotic program until completion of cytokinesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Mitotic cells might undergo senescence by failing to replicate. (hindawi.com)
  • G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikipedia.org)