Loading...
  • extracellular
  • In Myxococcus xanthus the extracellular matrix is essential for type IV pili-dependent motility and starvation-induced fruiting body formation. (unibas.ch)
  • Proteins of two-component systems including the orphan DNA binding response regulator DigR are essential in regulating the composition of the extracellular matrix. (unibas.ch)
  • We suggest that SgmT/DigR regulates extracellular matrix composition and that SgmT activity is regulated by two sensor domains with ligand binding to the GAF domain resulting in SgmT activation and c-di-GMP binding to the GGDEF domain resulting in spatial sequestration of SgmT. (unibas.ch)
  • inhibitor
  • Moreover, LTP was not affected by the sGC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,xadiazolo[4,3-a]-quiloxalin-1-one. (jneurosci.org)
  • 2 Several regulatory proteins thus cooperate to provide a tight control of RhoA activity including RhoA exchange factors and RhoA GTPase activating proteins that control the GDP/GTP cycle, and Rho guanine dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) that sequesters RhoA in the cytosol. (ahajournals.org)
  • When it was found that the antibiotic rapamycin was a potent inhibitor of the proliferation of virtually every eukaryotic cell type examined (e.g., fungi, T cells, and tumor cells) [ 1 , 2 , 3 ], it became clear that the molecular target of rapamycin must be highly conserved and its function critical for cell survival. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, inhibition of protein kinase C by bisindolylmaleimide 1 or protein kinase C β peptide inhibitor had no effect on the methoxamine-induced antagonism of I Ca-L in the absence or presence of hypoxia. (ahajournals.org)
  • The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein attenuated the methoxamine response in nonhypoxic cells only. (ahajournals.org)
  • effector
  • In the vasculature, RhoA and its downstream effector Rho associated protein kinase (Rock) have been shown to regulate processes such as vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction, proliferation and differentiations, endothelial permeability, platelet activation, and leukocyte migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition
  • We found marked inhibition of AngII-induced Rho/Rho-kinase activation and subsequent VSMC migration by eNOS gene transfer whereas G q -dependent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by AngII remains intact. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- The eNOS/NO cascade specifically targets the Rho/Rho-kinase system via inhibition of G 12/13 to prevent vascular migration induced by AngII, representing a novel signal cross-talk in cardiovascular protection by NO. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 Recently, we showed that stimulation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT 2 R) in VSMC induces RhoA phosphorylation by the Ste20-related kinase SLK, which contributes to the vasodilatory effect of AT 2 R. 8 In fact, functional consequences of RhoA phosphorylation mimics RhoA-Rock inhibition that reverses or delays vascular pathology development. (ahajournals.org)
  • PKG1-dependent repair functions will outweigh its signaling functions in spinal nociceptive LTP (show SCP2 ELISA Kits ), so that inhibition of PKG1 is no option for neuropathic pain. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Exogenous H(2)O(2) also concentration-dependently stimulated Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells, and its effect was prevented by inhibition of calmodulin or CaMKII. (nih.gov)
  • regulate
  • We evaluated the ability of wild-type (WT) or R678X PRKG2 to regulate COL2 expression in cell culture. (uliege.be)
  • Since its original discovery nearly 60 y ago ( 1 , 2 ), cAMP has been shown to regulate many different biological processes in multiple cell types ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • cells
  • Using wild type (wt) and non-myristoylated mutant PKG II proteins it was demonstrated that N-myristoylation (N-myr) is important for targeting of PKG II to membranes and distal ends of filopodia like structures in COS-1 and HEK-293 cells. (ubc.ca)
  • Overexpression of the dominant negative regulatory domain of PKG II in hippocampal neurons caused a 2.5-fold increase in filopodia in young neurons and a 2-fold increase in spine like structures in older neurons compared to GFP overexpressing cells. (ubc.ca)
  • The non-myristoylated forms of PKG II overexpressing cells did not show an increase in filopodia/spine like structures, indicating that proper targeting of PKG II through myristoylation is important for the regulatory domain to have a dominant negative effect. (ubc.ca)
  • In this regard, AngII stimulates hypertrophy, proliferation, and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), the AngII type-1 receptor (AT 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, PKG stimulation of Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells was abrogated by ROS/H(2)O(2) scavenging, antagonism of calmodulin, and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • To grow, eukaryotic cells must expand by inserting glycerolipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and proteins into their plasma membrane, and maintain the proper levels and bilayer distribution. (mdpi.com)
  • As first demonstrated in yeast [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ], TOR is found in all eukaryotic cells in two distinct macromolecular complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). (mdpi.com)
  • We also find that little phosphorylation occurs unless at least two different PDEs are concurrently inhibited in these cells. (pnas.org)
  • At birth in this species, the axonal terminals of the retinal ganglion cells from the two eyes are intermixed in their principal target, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). (jneurosci.org)
  • Immunocytochemical and tandem mass spectrometric analyses revealed that formation of 8-nitro-cGMP in rat C6 glioma cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus pro-inflammatory cytokines depended on production of both superoxide and H 2 O 2 . (biochemj.org)
  • presynaptic
  • PKG II was found to co-localize with both the presynaptic marker, synaptophysin and the postsynaptic marker PSD-95, indicating that PKG II is present at the synapse. (ubc.ca)
  • In contrast, blockers of the ADP-ribosyltransferase primarily reduced LTP, suggesting that NO, at least partly, acts via ADP-ribosylation of presynaptic proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • We then determined whether cGMP is present in presynaptic retinal terminals by the use of double-labeling for cGMP and either the presynaptic protein synaptophysin or a fluorescent anterograde tracer injected into the eye to label retinal terminals unambiguously in the dLGN. (jneurosci.org)
  • mediates
  • The observations suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby c-di-GMP mediates two-component signaling through a PilZ adaptor protein. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a pattern recognition receptor and adapter protein that mediates an innate immune response following detection of cytoplasmic DNA. (genecards.org)
  • metabolic
  • Diabetes is classified into two main categories: type 1 (an autoimmune disease of younger patients with a lack of insulin production causing hyperglycemia) and type 2 (a metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to produce enough or properly utilize insulin hence patients have hyperglycemia). (scielo.br)
  • residues
  • Our results, reported herein, revealed shifts in the EC 50 values of ≤2-fold, even with nonaromatic or charged residues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Channels
  • Activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase stimulates cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels via a ROS/calmodulin/CaMKII signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • PKG stimulation of K(ATP) channels was confirmed in intact ventricular cardiomyocytes, which was ROS- and CaMKII-dependent. (nih.gov)
  • This has been reported for L-type Ca 2+ channels, 2 3 4 5 for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl − channel, 6 and in studies on cardiac contractile function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Selective activator of both, cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I α and type II, as well as of cGMP-gated ion channels. (biolog.de)
  • hence, TRP channels expressed in the heart most likely coordinate signaling within local domains or through direct interaction with Ca 2+ -dependent regulatory proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 They are also implicated in disease where TRPM channels are involved in hormone-dependent cancer, 5 mutations in TRPP channels cause the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, 6 and TRPC6 plays a role in the development of renal failure resulting from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • serine
  • Recent accumulating evidence suggests that induction of VSMC migration by the AT 1 receptor requires multiple sets of downstream tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. (ahajournals.org)
  • binds
  • The bacterial messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) binds to a diverse range of effectors to exert its biological effect. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We show that PA2799 (named as HapZ: histidine kinase associated PilZ) binds directly to the phosphoreceiver (REC) domain of SagS, and that the SagS-HapZ interaction is further enhanced at elevated c-di-GMP concentration. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Definition: a protein that binds a ligand with high affinity and low capacity. (slideserve.com)
  • The GGDEF domain binds the second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-GMP (c-di-GMP) and functions as a c-di-GMP receptor to spatially sequester SgmT. (unibas.ch)
  • bacterial
  • Many bacterial pathogens produce diffusible signal factor (DSF)-type quorum sensing (QS) signals in modulation of virulence and biofilm formation. (pnas.org)
  • Many bacteria produce, detect, and respond to diffusible QS signal molecules in a cell-density-dependent manner ( 1 , 4 ), highlighting the critical roles of QS signal and its receptor in bacterial cell-cell communications. (pnas.org)
  • This gene encodes a five transmembrane protein that functions as a major regulator of the innate immune response to viral and bacterial infections. (genecards.org)
  • mice
  • Ex vivo, ovariectomy leads to an increase in the amplitude of phenylephrine- or serotonine-induced contractions of aortic rings in wild-type mice but not in AMPKα1-knock-out mice or E2-supplemented animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • TAT-apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain protein transduction rescues mice from fulminant liver failure. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • transcription
  • Previous research has shown that PRKG2 regulates SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9)-mediated transcription of collagen 2 (COL2). (uliege.be)
  • mechanism
  • Background- Although, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) is believed to antagonize vascular remodeling induced by the angiotensin II (AngII) type-1 receptor, the exact signaling mechanism remains unclear. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 RhoA phosphorylation thus appears as a simple physiological mechanism that could be used to control the dynamics of RhoA protein actions and to permit specific limitation or termination of RhoA protein signals. (ahajournals.org)
  • Despite the fact that free-standing PilZ proteins are by far the most prevalent c-di-GMP effectors known to date, their physiological function and mechanism of action remain largely unknown. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • mediator
  • By contrast PKG II has a much wider expression in the brain, indicating that it is most likely to be the mediator of cGMP actions. (ubc.ca)
  • Conclusion- Our work thus defines AMPKα1 as (1) a new kinase for RhoA and (2) a new mediator of the vasoprotective effects of estrogen. (ahajournals.org)
  • role
  • The encoded protein has also been shown to play a role in apoptotic signaling by associating with type II major histocompatibility complex. (genecards.org)
  • hippocampal
  • Full length wt PKG II and wt regulatory PKG JJ proteins, when overexpressed in hippocampal neurons targeted to the synapse, however, a G2A PKG II mutant, which does not undergo myristoylation had a much more diffuse distribution in the entire cell and did not target to the synapse. (ubc.ca)