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  • Abstract
  • Abstract -The amplitude of the whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ channel current recorded from vascular smooth muscle cells is reportedly greater in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). (ahajournals.org)
  • histone
  • Titration with the antibodies also revealed the presence of a cyclic AMP-independent histone kinase in bovine heart protein kinase I preparations obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. (biochemj.org)
  • Background: The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. (cellsignal.com)
  • Hyper-acetylation of the histone tails neutralizes the positive charge of these domains and is believed to weaken histone-DNA and nucleosome-nucleosome interactions, thereby destabilizing chromatin structure and increasing the accessibility of DNA to various DNA-binding proteins (4,5). (cellsignal.com)
  • Many transcription and chromatin regulatory proteins contain bromodomains and may be recruited to gene promoters, in part, through binding of acetylated histone tails. (cellsignal.com)
  • Histone acetylation is mediated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), such as CBP/p300, GCN5L2, PCAF, and Tip60, which are recruited to genes by DNA-bound protein factors to facilitate transcriptional activation (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Deacetylation, which is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDAC and sirtuin proteins), reverses the effects of acetylation and generally facilitates transcriptional repression (7,8). (cellsignal.com)
  • AKAPs
  • These data suggest that sperm contains several proteins that bind to AKAPs in a manner similar to RII and imply that AKAPs may have additional and perhaps unique functions in spermatozoa. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • By performing RII blot overlays on motility mutants defective for specific axonemal structures, two axonemal AKAPs have been identified: a 240-kD AKAP associated with the central pair apparatus, and a 97-kD AKAP located in the radial spoke stalk. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • gene
  • Mutations in BSCL2 gene underlie human Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2) diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • Gene regulation: Expression feels two pulses. (unibas.ch)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans mpk-1 gene encodes a MAP kinase protein that plays an important role in Ras-mediated induction of vulval cell fates. (genetics.org)
  • The lin-3 gene encodes a protein similar to epidermal growth factor (EGF) that is the inductive signal secreted by the anchor cell ( H ill and S ternberg 1992 ). (genetics.org)
  • Interactions
  • The molecular behavior of biological systems can be described in terms of three fundamental components: (i) the physical entities, (ii) the interactions among these entities, and (iii) the dynamics of these entities and interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the dynamics of the interactions with respect to disease have been less well studied (i.e., properties of components ii and iii). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overexpression
  • Overexpression of the dominant negative regulatory domain of PKG II in hippocampal neurons caused a 2.5-fold increase in filopodia in young neurons and a 2-fold increase in spine like structures in older neurons compared to GFP overexpressing cells. (ubc.ca)
  • research investigators have observed overexpression of these kinases in a variety of human cancers (2,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • Schroder,M, Friedl,P: Overexpression of recombinant human antithrombin III in Chinese hamster ovary cells results in malformation and decreased secretion of recombinant protein. (amazonaws.com)
  • genes
  • At BCM, she established two animal models based on genes that are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD) and human congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and characterized their functions in energy metabolism. (omicsonline.org)
  • membrane
  • Analogue of cyclic AMP showing better membrane permeability and higher stability against phosphodiesterases. (biolog.de)
  • While necessary for biogenesis of the organelle, Drp1‐dependent mitochondrial fragmentation is also an early and critical event in apoptosis, coinciding roughly with activation of the pro‐apoptotic B‐cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) family member Bax and permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane ( Martinou & Youle, 2006 ). (embopress.org)
  • Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions from adult brain shows that PKG II is present in both the pre and postsynaptic fractions and is enriched in the membrane fractions. (ubc.ca)
  • PKG II is also enriched in the synaptosomal membrane fraction of embryonic rat brain subcellular fractions. (ubc.ca)
  • Several membrane and myofibrillar proteins are phosphorylated under these conditions, but the relative contributions of these to increased contractility are not known. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA
  • We demonstrate that the antisense depletion of RI α in cancer cells results in increased RII β protein without increasing the rate of RII β synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this report, we demonstrate, using cultured cancer cells, that the loss of RI α by antisense treatment results in biochemical compensation by RII β and that this compensation is attributable to an increase in the half-life of RII β protein without changes in the rate of RII β protein synthesis or RII β mRNA levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Aurora C localizes to the centrosome from anaphase to cytokinesis and both mRNA and protein levels peak during G2/M phase. (cellsignal.com)
  • Antibody
  • D ) GFP and 3 × haemagglutinin (HA)‐tagged wild‐type (WT) and Ser656Ala Drp1 were expressed in COS cells metabolically labelled with 32 P and then immunoprecipitated with a Drp1 antibody. (embopress.org)
  • Western blot analysis using a PKG II specific antibody confirmed previous reports that PKG II is highly expressed in the cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and thalamus and absent in the cerebellum. (ubc.ca)
  • Immunocytochemisty using the PKG II antibody indicates that PKG II is present in both the cell body and processes of cortical, hippocampal and thalamic neurons in culture. (ubc.ca)
  • The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blots with each antibody. (cellsignal.com)
  • 1996
  • MAP kinase plays an important role in the Ras signaling pathway because it can activate downstream substrates that directly mediate the cellular response to growth factors, suggesting that MAP kinase acts near or at the end of this signaling pathway (reviewed in T reisman 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • Once activated, a significant fraction of MAP kinase molecules translocate to the nucleus, and many important MAP kinase substrates are localized in the nucleus ( e.g. , the mammalian transcription factors Elk-1 and Ets-1 (reviewed in T reisman 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • In addition to nuclear targets, some MAP kinase substrates are located in the cytoplasm, e.g. , the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS and the protein kinase pp90Rsk (reviewed in F errell 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • insulin
  • We found Bscl2-/- mice exhibit a fasting-dependent insulin signaling in liver and muscle. (omicsonline.org)
  • Leicester Research Archive: Studies on the mode of action of cyclic AMP in regulating the release of insulin from islets of Langerhans. (le.ac.uk)
  • Bei der Diabetes vom Typ II wiederum wird zwar genugend Insulin ausgeschuttet, dieses kann jedoch von den Zellen nicht richtig verarbeitet werden und der Blutzuckerspiegel steigt ebenfalls an. (amazonaws.com)
  • Type 1 and type 2 diabetes each have similarities in that both types of diabetes involve insulin from the pancreas not working properly as it should. (amazonaws.com)
  • Type 1 diabetes, once it is discovered, will need to take insulin right away in order to live, otherwise they will die without it if not taken when they are supposed to. (amazonaws.com)
  • Understanding the Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) Surgery on Type 2 Diabetes MellitusRaymond G. Why there is this discordant finding between HOMA-IR measures and insulin clamp studies is unclear. (amazonaws.com)
  • For example, muscle protein metabolism rapidly adapts in response to physical exercise, dietary protein or anabolic hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1 or testosterone ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • upstream
  • Epistasis analysis suggests that mpk-1 acts downstream of mek-2 (encodes a MEK homolog) and upstream of lin-1 (encodes an Ets transcription factor) in the anchor cell signaling pathway. (genetics.org)
  • regulatory
  • and moreover, based on the biological annotation of each type of dysregulated interaction gives clues about the regulatory logic governing the systems level perturbation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and (ii) a tethering domain that interacts with PKA regulatory subunits. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • However, the critical regulatory step in activating cdc2 during progression into mitosis appears to be dephosphorylation of cdc2 at Thr14 and Tyr15 (2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Full length wt PKG II and wt regulatory PKG JJ proteins, when overexpressed in hippocampal neurons targeted to the synapse, however, a G2A PKG II mutant, which does not undergo myristoylation had a much more diffuse distribution in the entire cell and did not target to the synapse. (ubc.ca)
  • The non-myristoylated forms of PKG II overexpressing cells did not show an increase in filopodia/spine like structures, indicating that proper targeting of PKG II through myristoylation is important for the regulatory domain to have a dominant negative effect. (ubc.ca)
  • Cellular
  • Cellular prion protein PRPC and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are markers of the cellular stress response to aneuploidy. (unibas.ch)
  • Martinez,IM, Chrispeels,MJ: Genomic analysis of the unfolded protein response in Arabidopsis shows its connection to important cellular processes. (amazonaws.com)
  • test the hypothesis
  • Here we test the hypothesis that the axoneme contains an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • To further test the hypothesis that activation of L-type Ca 2+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells would be enhanced in SHR, we recorded single Ca 2+ channel currents in resistance mesenteric artery cells from SHR and WKY (8 to 9 weeks of age) using a cell-attached patch clamp technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • mitosis
  • PICH promotes sister chromatid disjunction and co-operates with topoisomerase II in mitosis. (unibas.ch)
  • Aurora B kinase activity peaks at the transition from metaphase to the end of mitosis. (cellsignal.com)
  • activity
  • Between 1 and 2 hr after mitogen administration, the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity ratio increased markedly and was 0.23 unit above control values by 4 hr. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A high concentration of ConA (100 µg/ml), which also activated both isozyme forms of the kinase at 4 hr, produced only a small increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity and RNA synthesis at later times and no elevation in DNA synthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aberrant Hh signaling activity can be associated with numerous birth defects and uncontrolled Hh pathway activation is linked to the development of several types of cancers (1-2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Directed Divergent Evolution of a Thermostable D-Tagatose Epimerase towards Improved Activity for Two Hexose Substrates. (unibas.ch)
  • Bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in serum-depleted cultured airway smooth muscle via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. (biochemj.org)