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  • ammonia
  • Hydrogen cyanide is manufactured by oxidation of ammonia- methane mixtures under controlled conditions and by the catalytic decomposition of formamide. (cdc.gov)
  • Calcium cyanide can be prepared by treating powdered calcium oxide with boiling anhydrous hydrocyanic acid in the presence of an accelerator such as ammonia or water in order to minimize the loss of the hydrocyanic acid by polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • It has a well-earned reputation as a powerful poison, but cyanide is used in many industrial processes as well -- including electroplating, metallurgy, organic chemicals production, photographic developing, manufacture of plastics, fumigation of ships and some mining processes. (ehow.com)
  • Organic cyanides are usually called nitriles . (wikipedia.org)
  • effects of cyanide
  • The earliest effects of cyanide exposure are rapid, deep breathing and shortness of breath followed by convulsions (seizures) and loss of consciousness. (ehow.com)
  • exposure
  • Harmful exposure to potassium cyanide may occur after consuming contaminated food or beverages, inhaling droplets in the air or accidentally absorbing the chemical through the skin or eyes. (reference.com)
  • The immediate effects on plant life of cyanide exposure vary tremendously depending on the species of plant. (ehow.com)
  • still, it's important to know the signs of cyanide exposure just to err on the side of caution. (ehow.com)
  • Prolonged exposure to small amounts of cyanide over long periods of time has been linked to breathing difficulties, chest pain, vomiting, blood changes, headaches and enlargement of the thyroid gland. (ehow.com)
  • Exposure to large amounts of cyanide in a short time can cause brain and heart damage and in some cases can lead to coma and death. (ehow.com)
  • Exposure to hydrogen cyanide can cause skin and eye irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • Calcium Cyanide
  • Alternatively calcium cyanide may be prepared by reacting hydrocyanic acid gas with quicklime (CaO) at high temperatures around 400 °C. At higher temperatures around 600 °C calcium cyanimide is formed instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium cyanide is also sometimes used to produce ammonium cyanide by reacting it with ammonium carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ca(CN) 2 + (NH 4)2CO3 → 2 NH 4CN + CaCO3 Calcium cyanide is used almost exclusively in the mining industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • In some species, high concentrations of cyanide can inhibit respiration and affect a plant's ability to absorb nutrients from soil, in some cases causing plant death. (ehow.com)
  • Hydrogen cyanide has a distinctive bitter almond odor, but some individuals cannot detect it and consequently, it may not provide adequate warning of hazardous concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen cyanide is very volatile, producing potentially lethal concentrations at room temperature. (cdc.gov)
  • The odor of hydrogen cyanide is detectable at 2-10 ppm (OSHA PEL = 10 ppm), but does not provide adequate warning of hazardous concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • molecules
  • In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and defend the plant against herbivores . (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • inadequate warning because rapid olfactory fatigue can occur and 20-40% of the general population cannot smell hydrogen cyanide. (cdc.gov)
  • hazardous
  • Plants that have metabolized large amounts of cyanide can be hazardous to animals who eat those plants. (ehow.com)
  • amounts
  • Cyanide poisoning of livestock by way of cyanide buildup in grasses and other plants cultivated for cattle grazing have been so problematic that botanists have developed strains of cattle-grazing plants resistant to the buildup of large amounts of cyanide. (ehow.com)
  • When a human drinks water or touches soil that has large amounts of cyanide, health problems can quickly ensue. (ehow.com)
  • Similarly, humans can be put at risk when eating foods harvested from plants containing large amounts of cyanide. (ehow.com)
  • Cyanides are found in substantial amounts in certain seeds and fruit stones, e.g., those of bitter almonds , apricots , apples , and peaches . (wikipedia.org)