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  • transmembrane
  • Each subunits may span the membrane three times as putative transmembrane (TM) α-helices with the N-termini (the glutamate-binding domains) localized extracellularly and the C-termini localized cytoplasmically ( Gouaux, 2004 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Furthermore, the structure of group II includes the cysteine-rich domain, which is tightly linked to the ligand-binding domain by a disulfide bridge, suggesting a potential role in transmitting a ligand-induced conformational change into the downstream transmembrane region. (pnas.org)
  • An mGluR protomer consists of three distinct regions: the EC, transmembrane (TM), and intracellular regions ( Fig. 1 A ). The EC region is further divided into two parts: the N-terminal ligand-binding region, which is frequently called the "Venus flytrap module," and the cysteine-rich (CR) domain, which intervenes between the ligand-binding and TM regions. (pnas.org)
  • The description of glutamate receptor structure, including its transmembrane elements, reveals a complex assembly of multiple semiautonomous extracellular domains linked to a pore-forming element with striking resemblance to an inverted potassium channel. (nih.gov)
  • allosteric
  • Although this modular design has greatly facilitated biophysical and structural studies on individual GluR domains, and suggested conserved mechanisms for iGluR gating, recent work is beginning to reveal unanticipated diversity in the structure, allosteric regulation, and assembly of iGluR subtypes ( Mayer, 2011 ). (tcdb.org)
  • protein
  • This entry represents a domain found in the solute-binding protein family 3 members from Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and archaea. (embl.de)
  • This domain can also be found in the N-terminal of the membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase F (MltF) protein. (embl.de)
  • For a given structure, we generate pairs of fragments based on scanning all possible cleavage points on the protein chain, compute the energy of the fragments compared with the undivided protein, and predict hinges where this quantity is minimal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The coordinates reported as representing a protein structure, however, are in fact averages over an ensemble at low temperature, at least when solved by X-ray crystallography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The refined model contains 4462 non-hydrogen protein atoms, 730 water molecules, 2 bound glutamate molecules, and 2 Tris molecules from the buffer used in crystallization. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that transduces extracellular (EC) signals into G protein activation through biomembranes. (pnas.org)
  • mechanism
  • and 3) whether predictions of mechanism of action could be inferred by comparing molecular interactions between the ligand-binding domain and each compound with those of cyclothiazide and CX614. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In particular, the absence of structural information about the CR domain obscures the concrete and conformational views of the coupling mechanism between the ligand-binding and TM regions. (pnas.org)
  • cyclothiazide
  • Crystallographic data show that these compounds bind within the modulator-binding pocket and that substituents of each compound overlap with distinct moieties of cyclothiazide and CX614. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, we proposed that the structure is in dynamic equilibrium, where the ratio between the active and resting conformations is modulated by the presence/absence of ligand. (pnas.org)