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  • Somatic
  • Benirschke K, Brownhill LE, Beath MM (1962) Somatic chromosomes of the horse, the donkey and their hybrids, the mule and the hinny. (springer.com)
  • The review provides a brief account of the structure of somatic and meiotic chromosomes, stressing the high conservation of structure in plants and animals, with emphasis on aspects that require further research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies reaffirmed that chromosome structure and behavior in somatic and germ cell divisions were common to all plants and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes
  • However, this estimate is rough, as substitution (and mutation) rates may vary between genes and between species and the exact rate of molecular clock in S. latifolia is not known. (genetics.org)
  • genetic
  • The majority of teleost fish are gonochoristic, meaning that they exist as males and females, and the most gonochoristic species have genetic sex determination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the fish species with genetic sex determination many variations have been found, ranging from male or female heterogamety to polygenic sex determination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the genetic code was deciphered much has been learnt about the chromosome structure shared by all organisms from yeast to human. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the main products of the benzene metabolism (acid S-phenylmercapturic and trans -trans -muconic) and toluene (hippuric acid) are eliminated through the urine, some intermediate metabolites may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can cause oxidative stress and genetic damage [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To begin to understand the genetic basis of skin pigmentation changes in fish, Kingsley and his colleagues crossed stickleback species that had different pigmentation patterns and used genetic markers and the recently completed sequence map of the fish's genome to search for the mechanism regulating stickleback pigmentation. (blogspot.com)
  • What about the reduced genetic diversity of our species? (blogspot.com)
  • An argument for the recent Out of Africa model is that the reduced genetic diversity of our species necessitates a small effective population size and a recent genealogical time depth. (blogspot.com)
  • But, the data can just as well be explained by species-wide selection which culled genetic variation. (blogspot.com)
  • The multi-regional hypothesis proposes that the reduced genetic diversity of our species is due to a pattern of selection. (blogspot.com)
  • genomes
  • Our study confirmed that the genomes of the diurnal birds of prey, especially the genomes of species in Accipitriformes excluding Cathartidae, have been extensively reshuffled when compared to other bird lineages. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Using this diagnostic probe mix and a BAC that contained a C-genome repeat in two successive hybridizations allowed for routine identification of the corresponding homoeologous chromosomes between the A and C genomes of B. napus . (genetics.org)
  • organism
  • Ideally, detailed investigation of the chromosome architecture of an organism and related groups, placed within a phylogenetic context, is required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T. Boveri studies sea urchin embryos and finds that in order to develop normally, the organism must have a full set of chromosomes, and from this he concludes that the individual chromosomes must carry different essential hereditary determinants. (esp.org)
  • progenitor
  • In this study, we establish the identification of all homoeologous chromosomes of allopolyploid B. napus by using robust molecular cytogenetic karyotypes developed for the progenitor species Brassica rapa (A genome) and Brassica oleracea (C genome). (genetics.org)
  • human
  • guest artists For download, the Medicare bonus however longer does nationals to spend beverages who turn human respective probes during their expansion aim, moderate as chromosome ads or political fixed-job losses paid with course of calculations. (octavachamberorchestra.com)
  • The evidence is not inconsistent with this hypothesis, as the human species shows a clear pattern of morphological change in the last 200 thousand years. (blogspot.com)
  • birds
  • In this study, we use flow karyotypes of GGA, TSC and CNI as representative species of birds, turtles and crocodiles to measure each chromosome size and GC content. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It features an almost surreal portrait of Yadwigha (Jadwiga), Rousseau's Polish mistress from his youth, lying naked on a divan to the left of the painting, gazing over a landscape of lush jungle foliage, including lotus flowers, and animals including birds, monkeys, an elephant, a lion and lioness, and a snake. (esp.org)
  • variations
  • Variations in morphology within species, and to a greater extent between species, led Linnaeus and other taxonomists to classify all organisms in terms of genealogies with species, families and orders depending on their similarities, starting with individuals capable of reproduction that defined a species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract
  • He was steadily divesting his paintings of mere likeness, not that this was synonymous with a progressive elimination of the subject: his paintings were becoming more abstract but not entirely so. (esp.org)
  • consists
  • The Leporinus group consists of around 40 species and eight of them show heteromorphic sex chromosomes and the presence of conspicuous large blocks of heterochromatin on sex chromosomes is the characteristic feature of the Leporinus karyotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • experiments
  • Using several plant species, de Vries and Correns had performed breeding experiments that paralleled Mendel's earlier studies and had independently arrived at similar interpretations of their results. (esp.org)
  • studies
  • Benirschke K, Malouf N (1967) Chromosome studies of Equidae. (springer.com)
  • T. H. Montgomery studies spermatogenesis in various species of Hemiptera. (esp.org)
  • As cells get older, prior studies have shown, tightly wound heterochromatin wrapping that typically imprisons transposons becomes looser , allowing them to slip out of their positions in chromosomes and move to new ones, disrupting normal cell function. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • lineages
  • We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • differences
  • Despite the large differences in genome size between these three species according to the database, GGA macrochromosomes, comprising about 70 per cent of the genome, show extensive homology in the karyotypes of TSC and CNI by chromosome painting [ 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Benirschke K, Malouf N, Low RJ, Heck H (1965) Chromosome complement differences between Equus caballus and Equus przewalskii , Poliakoff. (springer.com)
  • Using both a chromosome-based cladistic analysis as well as by mapping of chromosomal differences onto a molecular-based phylogenetic tree, we revealed a number of potential cytogenetic signatures that support the clade of Pandionidae (PHA) + Accipitridae. (beds.ac.uk)
  • different
  • A different interpretation is that the painter used red and yellow hues to paint it, but even though he moved his brush left-right and top-bottom, shuffling pigments around, there was an excess of red pigment at the spot where his brush first hit the canvas. (blogspot.com)
  • among
  • Among this eight species seven ( L. conirostris , L. elongatus , L. aff. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among those adaptations were new colorations that helped the fish camouflage themselves, distinguish species, and attract mates in their new environments. (blogspot.com)
  • found
  • The strongest documented case of intraspecific sexual isolation in this species is found between strains from Zimbabwe and those from other geographic areas (Cosmopolitan strains). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • probable
  • This is not our download numerical computer methods part of poleward Hungarians is probable to, but is exclusive to laying the species the eager latter of the overriding morphologically-based main and unexpected growth provide composed. (octavachamberorchestra.com)
  • model
  • Labour download the real real modernism: The model is a chromosome regarded to show some of the movies of black improvement of military first German effects and younger benefits. (octavachamberorchestra.com)