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  • genomes
  • Our study confirmed that the genomes of the diurnal birds of prey, especially the genomes of species in Accipitriformes excluding Cathartidae, have been extensively reshuffled when compared to other bird lineages. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Using this diagnostic probe mix and a BAC that contained a C-genome repeat in two successive hybridizations allowed for routine identification of the corresponding homoeologous chromosomes between the A and C genomes of B. napus . (genetics.org)
  • Subsequent advancements made in DNA and RNA labeling methods for genes, chromosomes and whole genomes have facilitated the analysis of both numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations in both basic and clinical laboratories. (lidsen.com)
  • genes
  • However, this estimate is rough, as substitution (and mutation) rates may vary between genes and between species and the exact rate of molecular clock in S. latifolia is not known. (genetics.org)
  • Evolution of sex chromosomes is expected to lead to degeneration of Y-linked genes due to lack of recombination that slows down adaptive evolution ( R ice 1987 ) and exacerbates the processes of genetic hitchhiking, background selection, and Muller's ratchet that lead to accumulation of deleterious mutations and gene loss (reviewed in C harlesworth 1991 , 2008 ). (genetics.org)
  • T. H. Morgan proposes that the genes for white eyes, yellow body, and miniature wings in Drosophila are linked together on the X chromosome. (esp.org)
  • Somatic
  • Benirschke K, Brownhill LE, Beath MM (1962) Somatic chromosomes of the horse, the donkey and their hybrids, the mule and the hinny. (springer.com)
  • The review provides a brief account of the structure of somatic and meiotic chromosomes, stressing the high conservation of structure in plants and animals, with emphasis on aspects that require further research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies reaffirmed that chromosome structure and behavior in somatic and germ cell divisions were common to all plants and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genetic
  • The majority of teleost fish are gonochoristic, meaning that they exist as males and females, and the most gonochoristic species have genetic sex determination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the fish species with genetic sex determination many variations have been found, ranging from male or female heterogamety to polygenic sex determination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the genetic code was deciphered much has been learnt about the chromosome structure shared by all organisms from yeast to human. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the main products of the benzene metabolism (acid S-phenylmercapturic and trans -trans -muconic) and toluene (hippuric acid) are eliminated through the urine, some intermediate metabolites may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can cause oxidative stress and genetic damage [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What about the reduced genetic diversity of our species? (blogspot.com)
  • An argument for the recent Out of Africa model is that the reduced genetic diversity of our species necessitates a small effective population size and a recent genealogical time depth. (blogspot.com)
  • But, the data can just as well be explained by species-wide selection which culled genetic variation. (blogspot.com)
  • The multi-regional hypothesis proposes that the reduced genetic diversity of our species is due to a pattern of selection. (blogspot.com)
  • We used long-read sequencing augmented by transcriptomics, optical and genetic mapping along with shared synteny from closely related fish species to derive a chromosome-level assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome. (plos.org)
  • hybridization
  • No signals were observed when the later aforementioned probe was used in hybridization procedures against other four Anostomidae species without sex chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of every chromosome among these three Brassica species utilized genetically mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) from B. rapa as probes for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). (genetics.org)
  • Prior to the development of Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, congenital and DNA damage induced chromosomal aberrations were analyzed by conventional chromosome banding techniques. (lidsen.com)
  • autosomes
  • An exception is observed in the Leporinus sp2 species, where the W chromosomes are not differentiated from autosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S. latifolia sex chromosomes apparently evolved from a single pair of autosomes that ceased recombining with each other along most of their length and began to diverge ( F ilatov 2005a ). (genetics.org)
  • proteins
  • Condensin I DC , a subcomplex within the DCC, contains two SMC (structural maintenance of chromosome) proteins (DPY-27 and MIX-1) and three CAP (chromosome-associated polypeptide) proteins (DPY-26, DPY-28, and CAPG-1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract
  • He was steadily divesting his paintings of mere likeness, not that this was synonymous with a progressive elimination of the subject: his paintings were becoming more abstract but not entirely so. (esp.org)
  • evolutionarily
  • The DCC contains a subcomplex (condensin I DC ) similar to the evolutionarily conserved condensin complexes which play fundamental roles in chromosome dynamics during mitosis and meiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • loci
  • Screening the second chromosome identified at least five loci, two of which are previously described components of the MSL complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ancestral
  • guest artists They do the download open innovation in r paintings to have hours to navigate communist patients or vary German tetrads longer vehicles long of being ancestral people am longer people. (octavachamberorchestra.com)
  • Results of this 'chromosome paint-ing' can be summarized as a 'coancestry matrix', which directly reveals key information about ancestral relationships among individuals. (blogspot.com)
  • progenitor
  • In this study, we establish the identification of all homoeologous chromosomes of allopolyploid B. napus by using robust molecular cytogenetic karyotypes developed for the progenitor species Brassica rapa (A genome) and Brassica oleracea (C genome). (genetics.org)
  • closely
  • Improvements in the resolution of chromosome analysis has followed closely the introduction of innovative technology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The latter property is due to the nanoscopic closely packed protuberances of its self-cleaning leaf surface, which have been adapted for the manufacture of a self-cleaning industrial paint, Lotusan. (genomevisualization.com)
  • variations
  • Variations in morphology within species, and to a greater extent between species, led Linnaeus and other taxonomists to classify all organisms in terms of genealogies with species, families and orders depending on their similarities, starting with individuals capable of reproduction that defined a species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • human
  • The evidence is not inconsistent with this hypothesis, as the human species shows a clear pattern of morphological change in the last 200 thousand years. (blogspot.com)
  • guest artists For download, the Medicare bonus however longer does nationals to spend beverages who turn human respective probes during their expansion aim, moderate as chromosome ads or political fixed-job losses paid with course of calculations. (octavachamberorchestra.com)
  • sequences
  • The absence of signals in the species without differentiated sex chromosomes does not exclude the possibility of cryptic sex chromosomes, but they must contain other Leporinus W sequences than those described here. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CrossRefPubMedGoogle ScholarWolny E, Hasterok R( 2009) formal nomadic tradition of the efforts of the page enterprise mountain Chromosome and its short sequences. (calzaretta.com)
  • consists
  • The Leporinus group consists of around 40 species and eight of them show heteromorphic sex chromosomes and the presence of conspicuous large blocks of heterochromatin on sex chromosomes is the characteristic feature of the Leporinus karyotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lineages
  • We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • differences
  • Despite the large differences in genome size between these three species according to the database, GGA macrochromosomes, comprising about 70 per cent of the genome, show extensive homology in the karyotypes of TSC and CNI by chromosome painting [ 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Using both a chromosome-based cladistic analysis as well as by mapping of chromosomal differences onto a molecular-based phylogenetic tree, we revealed a number of potential cytogenetic signatures that support the clade of Pandionidae (PHA) + Accipitridae. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Benirschke K, Malouf N, Low RJ, Heck H (1965) Chromosome complement differences between Equus caballus and Equus przewalskii , Poliakoff. (springer.com)
  • birds
  • In this study, we use flow karyotypes of GGA, TSC and CNI as representative species of birds, turtles and crocodiles to measure each chromosome size and GC content. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It features an almost surreal portrait of Yadwigha (Jadwiga), Rousseau's Polish mistress from his youth, lying naked on a divan to the left of the painting, gazing over a landscape of lush jungle foliage, including lotus flowers, and animals including birds, monkeys, an elephant, a lion and lioness, and a snake. (esp.org)
  • canvas
  • The Dream (French: Le Rêve, occasionally also known as Le Songe or Rêve exotique) is a large oil-on-canvas painting, one of more than 25 Rousseau paintings with a jungle theme. (esp.org)
  • Imagine a canvas painted with an orange color. (blogspot.com)
  • A different interpretation is that the painter used red and yellow hues to paint it, but even though he moved his brush left-right and top-bottom, shuffling pigments around, there was an excess of red pigment at the spot where his brush first hit the canvas. (blogspot.com)
  • Barge Haulers on the Volga or Burlaki (Russian: Burlaki na Volge) is an 1870 73 oil-on-canvas painting depicting laboring men dragging a barge on the Volga River. (esp.org)