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  • Conclusions
  • Special emphasis is given to explaining the challenges that social scientists face in drawing conclusions about cause and effect from their studies, and offers an overview of the approaches that are used to overcome these challenges. (coursera.org)
  • ineffective
  • For example, if people who have a more refractory or serious problem tend to drop out of a study at a higher rate, even a completely ineffective treatment may appear to be providing benefits if one merely compares the condition before and after the treatment for only those who finish the study (ignoring those who were enrolled originally, but have since been excluded or dropped out). (wikipedia.org)
  • One low quality study found that zopiclone is ineffective in improving sleep quality or increasing sleep time in shift workers - more research in this area has been recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • For decades, cross-sectional studies were the mainstay of social science research. (coursera.org)
  • A study of benign prostatic hypertrophy might be misleading if cases were identified from hospital admissions and admission to hospital was influenced not only by the presence and severity of disease but also by other variables, such as social class. (bmj.com)
  • time
  • Cross-sectional studies involve data collected at a defined time. (wikipedia.org)
  • One possible study design would be to sample 100 infected subjects, randomly give them the treatment or the placebo, and see if the infection is still present after a set time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possible study design would be to give 50 infected subjects the treatment, 50 infected subjects the placebo, and see if the infection is still present after a set time. (wikipedia.org)
  • attitudes
  • Within this study we wanted to find out whether experiencing moral doubt is related to the normative attitudes of health care professionals towards coercion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cases
  • The starting point of mostcase-control studies is the identification of cases. (bmj.com)
  • Cases are keen to find out what caused their illness and are therefore better motivated to remember details of their past than controls with no special interest in the study question. (bmj.com)
  • found
  • They found that it actually appears to be a factor linked with the presence of knee pain as well as osteoarthritis in obese study subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large scale KANWU study found that increasing monounsaturated fat and decreasing saturated fat intake could improve insulin sensitivity, but only when the overall fat intake of the diet was low. (wikipedia.org)
  • past
  • In a case-control study patients who have developed a disease are identified and their past exposure to suspected aetiological factors is compared with that of controls or referents who do not have the disease. (bmj.com)
  • treatment
  • Intention to treat analyses are done to avoid the effects of crossover and dropout, which may break the random assignment to the treatment groups in a study. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final possible study design would be to give 50 infected subjects the treatment, 50 infected subjects the placebo, and stop the experiment once a set number of subjects has healed from the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • interest
  • We have read with great interest the study of Karukunchit et al published in Patient Preference and Adherence . (dovepress.com)
  • subjects
  • Ninety-six subjects with macromastia and 103 control subjects participated in this study. (aappublications.org)
  • There was an apparent increase from 1% to 2% to 3% over the three study periods, which may have been due to an increase of dentate subjects in the older age groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • This type of design is uncommon, but has the same structure as the 'lady tasting tea' study that led to R. A. Fisher creating Fisher's Exact test. (wikipedia.org)
  • give
  • To give an extreme example, a case-control study of bladder cancer and smoking could give quite erroneous findings if controls were taken from the chest clinic. (bmj.com)
  • analysis
  • ITT is also simpler than other forms of study design and analysis because it does not require observation of compliance status for units assigned to different treatments or incorporation of compliance into the analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • previous
  • This is consistent with previous studies that demonstrated high co-morbidity of somatic, depressive, and anxious symptoms (i.e. the somatization-anxiety-depression triad). (wikipedia.org)
  • attitudes towards
  • Moreover, there is minimal study that investigates the importance of attitudes towards mobile commerce as antecedents of mobile commerce adoption using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), especially in the Malaysian market. (online-journals.org)
  • Results
  • However, the results differed depending on the depression scale used (the relative risk of depression was significantly higher for studies that used the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and not significantly lower for those that used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). (nationalelfservice.net)
  • Infections
  • Our pilot study in a rural community in Ghana indicates an urgent need for action in dealing at least with high-prevalent pregnancy-relevant infections, such as hepatitis B, malaria and those caused by group B streptococci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent
  • Recent experimental study demonstrates a significant increase of urinary excretion of SBP-1 with a significant the area under the curve compared with serum creatinine (SCr) or blood nitrogen urea (BNU) in acute kidney injury-model [ 19 ]. (biomedres.info)
  • More recent studies explored the impact of food deserts in other geographic areas (e.g., rural and frontier) and among specific populations, like minorities and the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social Studies
  • In the fall of 2009, RBR also launched its three-year academies for sophomores, juniors and seniors in the areas of Math & Science, Humanities & Social Studies, International & Cultural Studies, and Sports Medicine & Management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Students may specialize in one of four four-year programs: Academy of Finance, Academy of Information Technology, Graphic Communications, or Engineering, or concentrate their studies in one of four three-year small learning communities in Math & Science, Humanities & Social Studies, International & Cultural Studies and Sports Medicine & Management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model
  • This study aims to develop an MMT system dynamic model (SDM) to compare and optimize HIV and HCV control strategies in the MMT system. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • attention
  • Headline-grabbing study brings attention back to medical errors. (ahrq.gov)
  • In the study of health and quality of life in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is of paramount importance to include assessment of functioning. (springer.com)
  • test
  • Participant self-discloses as HIV negative (based on receiving a negative HIV test within 12 months prior to study consent). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • provides
  • Also, this study provides insightful implications for marketers to understand consumer behaviour and strengthen the mobile commerce market. (online-journals.org)
  • While none of these ground-based analogs provides a perfect simulation of human microgravity exposure during spaceflight, each is useful for study of particular aspects of muscle unloading as well as for investigation of sensorimotor alterations. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • By knowing the factors that drive the use of mobile commerce, this study seeks to facilitate marketers on how to use the findings and intensify the growth of online business in Malaysia. (online-journals.org)
  • The reason for the different studies was to gradually eliminate external factors around the shot. (wikipedia.org)
  • months
  • Participant self-discloses as HIV negative (no history of prior HIV testing, or HIV screening more than 12 months prior to date of study consent). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determined to change from theoretical physics to medicine, Kovács entered an accelerated Ph.D. to M.D. program at the University of Miami that awarded him a medical degree after 22 months of concentrated study, in 1979. (wikipedia.org)
  • short
  • Access to human crewmembers during both short- and long-duration mission for the study of skeletal muscle adaptation to microgravity and the efficacy of countermeasures has been, and continues to be, limited. (wikipedia.org)