• In mice, the NH36 induced protection against visceral leishmaniasis is mediated by a CD4+ T cell response against its C-terminal domain (F3). (frontiersin.org)
  • The cross-reaction of the mixed serum from the immunised mice with the tested serovars was seen in the western-blotting also. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • Cytokine mRNA levels were assessed in Burkholderia pseudomallei-susceptible BALB/c mice and B. pseudomallei- resistant C57BL/6 mice following administration of a sublethal dose of less virulent (LV) B. pseudomallei, a candidate immunogen tested for protection against a highly virulent (HV) challenge. (edu.au)
  • There was substantial though differing cross-protection between pH1N1 and other H1 viruses, which was directly correlated with the relatedness in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The results cast doubt on the legal origin hypothesis in so far as they show that civil law systems have seen substantial increases in shareholder protection over the period in question. (ssrn.com)
  • Here, we show that two Escherichia coli strains can form an effective cross-protection mutualism, protecting each other in the presence of two antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol) so that the coculture can survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either strain alone. (pnas.org)
  • The two strains form a successful cross-protection mutualism without a period of coevolution, suggesting that similar mutualisms may arise during antibiotic treatment and in natural environments such as the soil. (pnas.org)
  • A cross-protection study using a 2010 field isolate as a challenge virus helped understand the mechanisms involved by designing a cold stress protocol needed for induction of mortality and clinical signs (Delvecchio et Al, 2015). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • So far, the majority of studies of microbial mutualisms have focused on cross-feeding, the mutually beneficial exchange of metabolites ( 10 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Studies involving cross-feeding amino acid auxotrophs ( 10 ⇓ - 12 ) found that the division of labor within the mutualism can increase the fitness of cross-feeding cocultures compared with a self-sufficient strain ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Adoptive transfer and cell depletion studies demonstrate that DENV-immune CD8 + T cells predominantly mediate cross-protective responses to ZIKV. (koicid.org)
  • Pigs are natural hosts for the same influenza virus subtypes as humans and are a valuable model for cross-protection studies with influenza. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This literature has, however, largely been based upon cross-sectional studies of the quality of corporate, insolvency and labour law at particular points in the late 1990s. (ssrn.com)
  • In this paper, we report findings based on newly constructed indices which track legal change over time in the areas of shareholder, creditor and worker protection. (ssrn.com)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are antigenically related flaviviruses that share cross-reactivity in antibody and T cell responses, and co-circulate in increasing numbers of countries. (koicid.org)
  • M. turicensis" bacteremia (group A), and five cats were naïve controls (group B). No cross-protection was observed. (uzh.ch)
  • In this study, we have used the pig model to examine the extent of virological protection between a) the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus and three different European H1 swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages, and b) these H1 viruses and a European H3N2 SIV. (beds.ac.uk)
  • True heterosubtypic protection, in contrast, appears to be minimal in natural influenza virus hosts. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This patient therefore maintains strong CD4 proliferative responses which are genotype specific and not cross-reactive. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: The O antigen of Y. ruckeri was the dominant immunogenic molecule involved in the protection of rainbow trout against enteric redmouth disease. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Cooperative interactions can occur when one individual or group provides nutrition, protection, or mobility to another ( 1 , 2 ), and whether an interaction is cooperative or competitive can depend on the environment ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • This strategy raises the question of whether cross-resistance between the compounds could occur. (asm.org)
  • The protection rates against diarrhea are significantly inversely correlated with T cell expansion in the duodenum and are positively correlated with T cell expansion in the ileum and spleen. (nih.gov)
  • The increasing number of H1 SIV lineages in Europe and other continents, and the geographic differences in the prevailing lineages have spurred interests in the extent of cross-protection between them. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Despite its obvious negative impacts on viral biocontrol of introduced European rabbits in Australia, little is known about the extent and mechanisms of this cross protection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this direction, we selected stable and gradual dose-dependent pediocin PA-1 single exposure resistant (Ped r ) mutants of E. faecalis , which conferred cross-protection to diverse CAMPs, viz. (springer.com)
  • There are, however, contradictory reports regarding cross-resistance following the spontaneous development of resistance to one of the two types of bacteriocins ( 5 , 11 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • Heterosubtypic protection has been repeatedly shown in rodents and ferrets [ 11 - 15 ], but only rarely in natural hosts of influenza. (beds.ac.uk)