• Objectives To describe, using routine data in selected countries, chlamydia control activities and rates of chlamydia infection, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and infertility and to compare trends in chlamydia positivity with rates of PID and ectopic pregnancy. (bmj.com)
  • Relationships between levels of chlamydia infection and complication rates between or within countries over time were not straightforward. (bmj.com)
  • 1-4 Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in Europe 5 and can cause female pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. (bmj.com)
  • Chlamydia Infection Between Men and Women: A Cross-Sectional Study of Heterosexual Partnerships. (edu.au)
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant public health problem among the youth in Western countries: 75% of all Chlamydia trachomatis infections and 41% of all gonorrhoea infections are reported in the population aged 15-24 years. (bmj.com)
  • Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15-20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gender-specific approaches may be the best alternative to control chlamydia infection in age group 15-20 years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Europe and USA mainly affecting young individuals aged 15-24 years, and is more often diagnosed in adolescent females than in males [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy in a sample of women up to 29 years of age in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and investigated socio-demographic risk factors such as maternal age, marital status, maternal schooling, and family income. (scielosp.org)
  • Este estudio estimó la prevalencia de Chlamydia trachomatis durante la gestación, entre mujeres de hasta 29 años, e investigó factores de riesgo sociodemográficos como: edad materna, estado civil, escolaridad materna y renta familiar, para esta infección en la ciudad de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (scielosp.org)
  • Several vertically transmitted infections are included in the TORCH complex:[citation needed] T - toxoplasmosis from Toxoplasma gondii O - other infections (see below) R - rubella C - cytomegalovirus H - herpes simplex virus-2 or neonatal herpes simplex Other infections include: Parvovirus B19 Coxsackievirus Chickenpox (caused by varicella zoster virus) Chlamydia HIV Human T-lymphotropic virus Syphilis Zika fever, caused by Zika virus, can cause microcephaly and other brain defects in the child. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "Prior work has demonstrated that HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells can cross-recognize variant epitopes. (monash.edu)
  • To examine the association between dietary habits and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection among patients at a tertiary healthcare center in Lebanon. (springer.com)
  • Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify the association between socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary and other health-related variables with H pylori infection. (springer.com)
  • The prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be 52.4% in this sample. (springer.com)
  • No relationship between dietary habits and H. pylori infection was found in the adjusted analysis. (springer.com)
  • Lifestyle factors are also believed to contribute to H. pylori infection development. (springer.com)
  • 20 ] reported that lower consumption of raw vegetables was significantly associated with higher risk of H. pylori infection in a group of Iranian students. (springer.com)
  • Many studies have reported an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
  • There are several methodological difficulties in carrying out studies to determine whether H pylori infection results in raised blood pressure. (bmj.com)
  • We have attempted to minimise such problems in a large prospective community based study of the association between H pylori infection and blood pressure. (bmj.com)
  • The primary aims of the study are to assess the effects of H pylori infection (and its eradication, on a double blind basis) on digestive symptoms and their treatment and on various other aspects of health and quality of life. (bmj.com)
  • Of the 10 537 subjects enrolled in the project, 1634 (15.5%) were positive for H pylori infection on a 13 C- urea breath test, using 100 mg 13 C urea with a standard orange juice and citric acid test meal and a cut off of 3.5 δ 13 C per ml. (bmj.com)
  • Blood pressure (mm Hg) in subjects with or without Helicobacter pylori infection. (bmj.com)
  • Our findings indicate that, contrary to some previous suggestions, the association that exists between cardiovascular disease and H pylori infection is not accounted for by any increase in blood pressure. (bmj.com)
  • H pylori infection had little effect on blood pressure in the general population in the age groups studied when methods designed to minimise potential sampling biases and selection biases were used. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of oral H.pylori among adults and to investigate the correlation between H.pylori infection and common oral diseases. (medsci.org)
  • The study included 1050 subjects in total and oral H.pylori infection occurred in 60.29% of the subjects. (medsci.org)
  • 1.164 to 2.285) increased the risk of H.pylori infection. (medsci.org)
  • Oral H.pylori infection is common in adult Chinese, which is significantly associated with oral diseases including periodontal diseases and caries. (medsci.org)
  • and the relation with patient characteristics, Helicobacter pylori infection, and psychological distress. (bmj.com)
  • H pylori infection, frequency of symptoms, and age had no influence on dyspepsia severity. (bmj.com)
  • Severity of dyspepsia and psychological distress, but not H pylori infection or duration of symptoms, affected health status univariately. (bmj.com)
  • H pylori infection relates neither to functional health status, nor to intensity of dyspepsia. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, a basic biological problem of the assay is that it cannot distinguish between cross-protective immunity and serotype-specific protective immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that herd immunity to a prevalent serotype protects the population for several years against the serotype of infection but not against other serotypes ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, an infection with one serotype confers temporary immunity to all four serotypes, showing that a cross-reactive component of the immune response elicits temporary tetravalent protection ( 7 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that some respiratory virus infections leave local populations of tissue TRM cells in the lungs which disappear as heterosubtypic immunity declines. (nih.gov)
  • Prior infection with West Nile virus provided sterilizing immunity against both viruses, whereas prior infection with St. Louis encephalitis virus prevented viremia from St. Louis encephalitis virus, but only reduced West Nile virus viremia titers. (ajtmh.org)
  • Thank you for sharing this Infection and Immunity article. (asm.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Infection and Immunity. (asm.org)
  • Human flavivirus infections appear to provide lifelong immunity to the infecting virus, yet only temporally transient protection to heterologous flavivirus infections ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Does immunity after Zika virus infection cross-protect against dengue? (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Our results indicate that Oas1b status as wild-type or truncated, and overall Oas1b gene dosage, link with novel innate immune gene signatures that impact specific biological pathways for the control of flavivirus infection and immunity through both Oas1b -dependent and independent processes. (g3journal.org)
  • Pregnant women are more prone to hookworm infection by virtue of their compromised immunity, secondary to the physiological process of pregnancy. (uib.no)
  • Pre-existing immunity against the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stalk underlies the elicitation of cross-group antibody induced by natural H7N9 virus infection and immunization in humans. (flu.org.cn)
  • However, whether broadly reactive antibodies can be induced by H7N9 infection and immunization in the absence of pre-existing stalk-specific immunity is unclear. (flu.org.cn)
  • These antibodies are highly cross-reactive among the dengue virus serotypes and, even at high concentrations, do not neutralize infection but potently promote ADE. (sciencemag.org)
  • This study aimed to determine the proportion of people living with HIV with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in a sample from a large single HIV center in Munich, Germany, after the first phase of the coronavirus pandemic and to infer the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection in people living with HIV. (springer.com)
  • The standard neutralization assay cannot differentiate between serotype-specific and serotype cross-reactive antibodies in patients early after infection, leading to an overestimation of the long-term serotype-specific protection of an antibody response. (frontiersin.org)
  • To better define the specificity of polyclonal antibodies during disease and after recovery, longitudinal samples from patients with primary or secondary DENV-2 infection were collected over a period of 1 year. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that serotype cross-reactive antibodies peaked 3 weeks after infection and subsided within 1 year. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since secondary patients rapidly produced antibodies specific for the virus envelope (E) protein, an E-specific ELISA was superior compared to a virus particle-specific ELISA to identify patients with secondary infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dengue infection triggered a massive activation and mobilization of both naïve and memory B cells possibly from lymphoid organs into the blood, providing an explanation for the surge of circulating plasmablasts and the increase in cross-reactive E protein-specific antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • The primary cause of transfusion-transmissible viral infections is thought to be related to donations made by individuals in the window period, which is the interval between the time of infection and the appearance of clinical symptoms or detectable disease markers, such as specific antibodies or viral nucleic acid sequences. (transfusion.com.au)
  • Protective virus-specific antibodies are elicited by the E glycoprotein, which contains both virus-specific and flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes. (asm.org)
  • Using mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), the majority of the cross-reactive epitopes have been mapped onto domains I and II of the E protein ( 5 , 19 - 22 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Cross-reactivity with high-level dengue virus antibodies was not detected. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Among patients with potentially cross-reactive antibodies anti-ZIKV positive rates were 0.8% (95% CI: 0-3.0) and 0.4% (95% CI: 0-2.4) for IgM and IgG, respectively. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The results showed that H7N9 infection and immunization with inactivated vaccine resulted in potent induction of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI), virus neutralization (VN) and HA-binding antibodies, whereas Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored H7N9 vaccine induced marginal HI and VN titers but high levels of HA-binding antibody. (flu.org.cn)
  • In addition, H7N9 infection and immunization induced stalk-specific antibodies in na?ve chickens and these antibodies recognized different epitopes in the stalk. (flu.org.cn)
  • Virus infection and immunization with inactivated vaccine elicited antibodies cross-reactive with both group 1 and group 2 HAs, while antibodies induced by NDV-H7N9 vaccination showed a narrower cross-reactivity within group 2. (flu.org.cn)
  • Moreover, only homologous neutralizing activity of the sera against H7N9 virus was observed, and cross-binding antibodies did not show heterosubtypic neutralizing activity. (flu.org.cn)
  • Our results indicated that cross-group binding but non-neutralizing antibodies primarily targeting the stalk can be induced by natural H7N9 infection and immunization with inactivated vaccine in na?ve chickens. (flu.org.cn)
  • The present study demonstrated that different levels of neutralizing antibodies were induced against variable DENV-2 genotypes after primary, secondary and tertiary infections, and that neutralizing antibody titers to some heterologous genotypes were higher than those to homologous genotypes within a serotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results indicate that heterogeneity and homogeneity of infecting genotypes influence the levels and cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies induced in following infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additional protection against common infections can be provided by routine vaccination. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Objectives To address whether the effect of BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) infection lasts to adulthood. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Our results suggest that BCG vaccine seems to have a protective effect in adults decades after vaccination according to the number of recent infections (QFT-IT ≥0.7 IU/ml). (bmj.com)
  • Further prospective cohort studies on the protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB infection in adults are warranted. (bmj.com)
  • We explored whether BCG vaccination continues to be associated with decreased prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Vaccine effectiveness (VE) of BCG, ascertained based on presence of a scar or vaccination history, against latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), measured via IGRA, was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The results also suggest that certain genotypes may possess advantage in terms of breakthrough infections against vaccination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 hantaviruses circulating in this region causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, mild disease, or asymptomatic infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Because asymptomatic infection with hantaviruses also has been detected in Minas Gerais, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the proportion of persons exposed to hantaviruses and to identify associated risk factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Human infections range from asymptomatic to self-limiting mild flu-like illness to hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • STI are important infections from a public health perspective because they are often asymptomatic but, untreated, can cause severe morbidity including ectopic pregnancy, infertility and late complications of syphilis [3, 4]. (smw.ch)
  • Methods Cross-national comparison including national data from Australia, Denmark, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and Switzerland. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Parents of pupils aged 6-12 years from schools in Barcelona province (Spain), Utrecht province (the Netherlands) and Eastern and Central Finland were administered a questionnaire including questions on the frequency of infections (influenza, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis, bronchitis and pneumonia) in the past 12 months and bleach use at home. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: We describe analyses of cross-sectional data using structural equation models (SEMs), a contemporary advancement on traditional regression approaches, based on our study system of feline gammaherpesvirus (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In conclusion, the risks of cross-infection will be reduced through these methods. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in Denmark among a random sample of 20 000 men and women in 2012. (bmj.com)
  • Infection control in dogs and cats is challenging, and there is a need to develop new methods to control transmission across all species. (scielosp.org)
  • METHODS A cross sectional, general practice based survey of 360 unselected primary care dyspeptic patients from 92 general practices in The Netherlands was conducted. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from adult contacts of tuberculosis cases participating in a UK cohort study. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Horses can suffer numerous health problems as a result of bacterial, viral or fungal infections. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Myeloid-related protein 8 induces self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to bacterial infection via TLR4- and TLR2-mediated signal pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, it is unclear whether Mrp8 could induce self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to bacterial infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pre-stimulation of murine macrophages and human monocytes with Mrp8 induced self-tolerance to Mrp8 re-stimulation and cross-tolerance to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial challenges, with substantially attenuated TNF-α and IL-6 release. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Increasing numbers of cases of notifiable bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Switzerland have been reported since 1999 [1]. (smw.ch)
  • Viral skin infections that accounts 48 (53.3%), were the leading cause of skin infections followed by 43 (47.8%), 33(36.7%) and 22 (24.7%) fungal infections, inflammatory and bacterial skin infections respectively. (springer.com)
  • As well as, this bacterial contamination was the reason for the false positive results observed during the detection of HCV infections. (ajol.info)
  • Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2012, 1:18 doi:10.1186/2047-2994-1-18. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 2:5. (uzh.ch)
  • On successfully completion of this course, students will be issued a Statement of Attainment for the unit BSBWHS332X Apply infection prevention and control procedures to own work activities. (edu.au)
  • Ten-year decrease of acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia at a single institution: the result of a multifaceted program combining cross-transmission prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Proper and thorough environmental hygiene in hospitals is critical for the prevention of healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • After several years work by the Clinical Advisory Panel, CFNZ has released revised guidelines on infection prevention and control in non-healthcare settings. (cfnz.org.nz)
  • In the care of patients, the prevention of nosocomial infections is crucial. (egms.de)
  • Hygiene quality is a particularly important focus, because the prevention of nosocomial infections poses a central challenge to modern medicine. (egms.de)
  • QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: In the next Swiss National HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Strategy 2011-2017, STI control will be integrated with HIV prevention. (smw.ch)
  • This study provides evidence necessary to influence decision making on prevention of hookworm infection in the study area. (uib.no)
  • The findings provide further evidence that Ebola, like many other viral infections, presents with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, including minimally symptomatic infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Clinically assess patients for manifestations of specific viral infections. (transfusion.com.au)
  • Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children are mainly due to viral infections [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • If an asylum seeker is diagnosed with a coronavirus infection, the instructions of the local emergency department or an infectious diseases specialist are followed. (redcross.fi)
  • New York- Outside the epicentres of New York and New Jersey, the US coronavirus infection curves were "starting to plateau", the White House task force indicated even as the country's death toll has increased to 23,608 and some states on the east and west coasts began collaborating on strategies to reopen their economies. (indianewengland.com)
  • There are 5,16,632 active cases of coronavirus infection in the country as on date which comprises 6.11 per cent of the total caseload, the data stated. (freepressjournal.in)
  • Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) patients. (springer.com)
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of LTBI. (springer.com)
  • However, little is known about the prevalence of latent TB infections (LTBI) among CWP patients. (springer.com)
  • Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the cross-sectional phase, 50 participants had LTBI and no association between LTBI status and serum 25(OH)D was found. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB among homeless in Seoul metropolitan city, South Korea, and to compare the TB burden among homeless people with that of a control group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Understanding the placenta might one day lead to ways to prevent fetal damage from the so-called TORCH infections: toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes and HIV, he added. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Conclusions/Significance: By using ELISA to measure Zaire Ebola virus antibody concentrations, we identified a significant number of individuals with previously undetected EBOV infection in a 'hotspot' village in Sierra Leone, approximately one year after the village outbreak. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions Passive exposure to cleaning bleach in the home may have adverse effects on school-age children's health by increasing the risk of respiratory and other infections. (bmj.com)
  • These results correspond well with cross-sectional survey conclusions. (emory.edu)
  • Serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections is challenging due to high cross-reactivity between flaviviruses. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and Magee-Womens Research Institute (MWRI) have devised a cell-based model of the human placenta that could help explain how pathogens that cause birth defects, such as Zika virus, cross from mother to unborn child. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers are beginning to use their model to test whether Zika virus, and other pathogens associated with congenital disease, can infect placental cells and/or cross the placental barrier. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus infection found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, with an estimated 50 to 100 million infections per year ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A sequence variation of 30 to 35% allows DENV to be divided into four serotypes, and infection with one serotype does not provide protection from infection with the other serotypes, so that secondary or sequential infections are common ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In 1977, Halstead suggested antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) to explain severe DENV infections ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • ADE has been widely studied and results from the high sequence divergence between DENV so that antibody to the first infection may not be of sufficient avidity to neutralize a secondary infection ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The partial cross-reactivity may cause a degree of opsonization that promotes virus uptake into Fc-bearing cells such as monocytes and macrophages-a major site of DENV replication in vivo-leading to increased virus replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because DENV exposure is associated with migration or travel, personal protection measures when visiting high-risk urban areas may reduce the incidence of DENV infection in this rural population. (ajtmh.org)
  • In monkeys that had been infected once or twice with DENV-2, neutralizing antibody was cross-reactive with all four serotypes after secondary or tertiary infection with DENV-3. (deepdyve.com)
  • In monkeys that had been inoculated with DENV-1 and DENV-2 in the primary and secondary infections, neutralizing antibody titers did not increase after tertiary infection with DENV-3. (deepdyve.com)
  • Dengue virus (DENV) infection poses a serious global public health challenge to three billion people, resulting in approximately 200 million cases of morbidity and 50,000 cases of mortality annually. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Cameroon like in most sub-Saharan African countries, DENV infection occur concurrently with other infectious diseases whose symptoms often overlap, rendering differential diagnosis challenging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DENV infection therefore is an important cause of fever among children in Cameroon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, there is a need to include differential screening for DENV infections as a tool in the management of fever in children in the country. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasma samples were obtained from marmosets after primary inoculation with DENV-2 infection, secondary inoculation with homologous or heterologous genotypes, and tertiary inoculation with heterologous DENV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After secondary DENV-2 infection with heterologous genotype (Asian I in primary and Asian/American in secondary), neutralizing antibody titers to Asian/American genotype was significantly higher than those against Cosmopolitan and Asian I genotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following tertiary infection with DENV-1 following DENV-2 Asian I and Cosmopolitan genotypes, neutralizing antibody titers to Asian/American were also significantly higher than those against Cosmopolitan and Asian I genotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is estimated that 50 to 100 million cases of dengue virus (DENV) infection occur annually worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5 Center for Molecular and Cellular Biology of Inflammation and Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammatory Diseases, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. (jci.org)
  • Immunology: Cross-dressers turn on T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Is the Subject Area "Helminth infections" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • One of the main impacts of malaria and helminth infections is anaemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the aims of this study were to asses the associations between anemia/nutrition status and helminth infections in patients with clinical malaria in communities of Alaba Kulito area, southern Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanisms that may contribute to this association include abnormalities in the levels of certain blood proteins (for example fibrinogen or C reactive protein) secondary to the chronic infection 1 2 and raised blood pressure in people infected with H pylori . (bmj.com)
  • People without CF rarely carry the particular bacteria that cause chronic infection in CF, but they may still carry other bacteria or viruses that cause problems for people with CF. Thus, "The concept of 'less threatening' bacteria is no longer accepted and all pathogens should be considered as potentially transmissible and universal precautions should be taken. (cfnz.org.nz)
  • Chronic HCV infection is associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease, suggesting that HCV-infected individuals warrant vigilant cardiovascular risk assessments. (natap.org)
  • Oral health, the mirror of general well being, is altered by many mediators like infection, chronic inflammation, and genetic predisposition. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Periodontal disease, also generally called periodontitis or gum disease, is a chronic infection-induced inflammatory disease that causes tooth loss if not properly treated, and is considered as a modifying factor in systemic health. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • However, most of these studies were performed in the context of chronic infection, where the presence of viral quasispecies makes it difficult to ascertain the true nature of the original antigenic stimulus. (monash.edu)
  • Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: Tanzania has a high prevalence (7.17%) of chronic hepatitis B infection. (sun.ac.za)
  • Mother to Child transmission is very common, resulting in high rate of chronic infections. (sun.ac.za)
  • This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for chronic HBV infection in pregnant women in a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. (sun.ac.za)
  • Low condom use was the only statistically significant risk factor for chronic HBV infection (OR = 3.514, 95%CI = 1.4-8.0). (sun.ac.za)
  • In the 3 years follow-up only 1 out of 7 children showed evidence of chronic HBV infection. (sun.ac.za)
  • These results indicate that antibody responses after secondary and tertiary infections with different serotypes are cross-reactive with all four serotypes, consistent with what has been observed in humans, and suggest that monkeys are useful for determining neutralizing antibody responses. (deepdyve.com)
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STI) in HIV-infected people are of increasing concern. (peerj.com)
  • In 2011, the Blood Service and the Kirby Institute published a comprehensive surveillance report for transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) - Safe blood - a focus on education, epidemiology and testing . (transfusion.com.au)
  • This supports the general effectiveness of the donor questionnaire and specifically that repeat donors understand what constitutes 'risk behaviour' for acquiring transfusion‑transmissible infections. (transfusion.com.au)
  • After an infection, cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors proliferate and become effector cells by recognizing foreign peptides in the groove of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) 1 . (nature.com)
  • Professional APCs specialized for T-cell activation acquire viral antigen either by becoming infected themselves (direct presentation) or by phagocytosis of infected cells, followed by transfer of antigen to the cytosol, processing and MHC class I loading in a process referred to as cross-presentation 2 . (nature.com)
  • An alternative way, referred to as 'cross-dressing', by which an uninfected APC could present antigen was postulated to be by the transfer of preformed peptide-MHC complexes from the surface of an infected cell to the APC without the need of further processing 3 . (nature.com)
  • After a viral infection, we could isolate cross-dressed APCs able to present viral antigen in vitro . (nature.com)
  • Cross-dressing is a mechanism of antigen presentation used by dendritic cells that may have a significant role in activating previously primed CD8 + T cells. (nature.com)
  • Antigen presentation: cross-dress to impress. (nih.gov)
  • The contribution of antigen cross-presentation by DCs to the induction of anti-viral cytotoxic T cells remains controversial. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we used a recombinant influenza virus expressing a nonstructural 1-GFP (NS1-GFP) reporter gene to visualize the route of antigen presentation by lung DCs upon viral infection in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Microglia were not infected by the virus but were found to cross-present antigen after acquisition from adjacent neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate that microglia provide a front-line defense against a neuroinvasive nasal infection by cross-presenting antigen to antiviral T cells that noncytolytically cleanse neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • D'Souza G, Cullen K, Bowie J, Thorpe R, Fakhry C (2014) Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection. (springer.com)
  • Human papillomavirus infection (HPV infection) is an infection caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a DNA virus from the Papillomaviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: BCG appears to reduce acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children, measured using interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • These results contribute to growing evidence that suggests BCG may protect against M. tuberculosis infection as well as disease. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The position statement is designed to educate people with CF, their caregivers and families about the risks of person-to-person infection from respiratory pathogens of any kind. (cfnz.org.nz)
  • Results: SEMs strongly supported a latent (host phenotype) variable associated with FcaGHV1 exposure and co-infection risk, suggesting these individuals are simply more likely to become infected with multiple pathogens. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that use mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several pathogens can cross the placenta and cause perinatal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood pressure in 1633 individuals with helicobacter infection was compared with twice that number (3267) of randomly selected non-infected subjects (total 4900). (bmj.com)
  • Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects with helicobacter infection before adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (weight (kg)/(height (m) 2 )), smoking, and high alcohol intake, but significantly lower after these adjustments (see table). (bmj.com)
  • Author Summary: Hookworm infection is a parasitic condition that more often goes unnoticed, yet it presents immense detrimental effects, especially to pregnant women and their unborn children. (uib.no)
  • Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve health of the affected communities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sera from subjects with syphilis cross-reacted in IFA tests and the ELISA for Lyme disease. (nih.gov)
  • Automated flow cytometry of urine remains an incompletely validated method to rule out urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. (asm.org)
  • A diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) requires at least 18 h until confirmation of a positive urine culture ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Exposure to urinary catheters is considered the most important risk factor for healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) and is associated with significant morbidity and substantial extra-costs. (uzh.ch)
  • In addition, blood samples were collected from 1086 participants and tested for malaria infection using standard microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques specific for Plasmodium falciparum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 0.001) higher anaemia prevalence than single infection with Plasmodium parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The importance of the submicroscopic reservoir of Plasmodium infections for malaria elimination depends on its size, which is generally considered small in low transmission settings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of these 164 (3 %) were infected with P. falciparum , 357 (7 %) with Plasmodium vivax , 56 (1 %) with a mixed infection, and 411 (8 %) had parasite densities that were too low for species identification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is nationally accredited training, and include learning to implement standard and transmission-based precautions and responding to infection risks. (edu.au)
  • It involves implementing standard and transmission-based precautions, identifying infection hazards, and assessing and responding to infection risks. (edu.au)
  • Background: Epidemiological studies of disease exposure risk are frequently based on observational, cross-sectional data, and use statistical approaches as crucial tools for formalising causal processes and making predictions of exposure risks. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Nutritional deficiencies may exacerbate the risks of perinatal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • With our new model in the research toolkit, we and other scientists hope to advance our knowledge of the placenta, examine its function , and learn how it can prevent most, but not all, maternal infections from causing problems for the baby. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4), ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8-7.3), and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1-22.7) increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mean age 12.3 ± 3.0 years) were consecutively recruited in this Norwegian cross-sectional study. (frontiersin.org)
  • This cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December, 2016, as part of a pneumoconiosis screening program at the Hospital of Occupational Diseases in Beijing. (springer.com)
  • We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 1425 households in 50 villages. (scielosp.org)
  • A total of 961 children under the age of 15 were recruited in a cross-sectional study using systematic sampling technique and by selecting each subject out of the three. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an effort to provide a more specific diagnostic test, we developed virus-like particle (VLP) antigens with reduced cross-reactivity for both SLEV and WNV by identifying and mutating envelope protein amino acids within the cross-reactive epitopes of VLP expression plasmids. (asm.org)
  • To determine the serodiagnostic discriminatory ability of the antigens with reduced cross-reactivity, a panel of 134 human serum samples collected predominately from North American patients with SLEV or WNV infections was used to evaluate the performance of these novel antigens in imunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (asm.org)
  • The use of these novel VLP antigens with reduced cross-reactivity in these serodiagnostic assays and others should lead to more accurate diagnoses of current infections, thereby reducing the need for time-consuming and cumbersome confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization tests to differentiate between SLEV and WNV infections in North America. (asm.org)
  • Heterophile antibody testing has a specificity of nearly 100%, though case reports of false positives (most notably in acute HIV infection) exist. (shmabstracts.com)
  • The patient's Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibody pattern is consistent with an acute EBV infection. (shmabstracts.com)
  • The positive HIV antibody test was presumed to reflect cross‐reactivity in the setting of acute EBV infection, as confirmed by a negative quantitative HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay the following day. (shmabstracts.com)
  • 2) Acute HIV infection is an important diagnostic alternative, with quantitative HIV PCR as the suggested screening method in appropriate individuals. (shmabstracts.com)
  • 95% CI 0.2, 10.3%) or women (no acute infections). (peerj.com)
  • This may permit to distinguish acute primary and acute secondary dengue infections [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To overcome this limitation, we evaluated the extent of CD8 T cell cross-reactivity in patients with acute HIV-1 clade B infection. (monash.edu)
  • Our data show that cross-reactive CD8 T cells are infrequent during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. (monash.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate that CD8 T cells are highly specific for autologous epitopes during acute HIV-1 infection. (monash.edu)
  • Several lines of evidence suggested that antioxidants might play a protective role against high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection and cervical cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • which indicates a lasting protective effect of BCG against TB infection into adulthood. (bmj.com)
  • These studies in non-human primates lend support to the idea that a live virus vaccine from a member of the TBEV complex may be broadly protective against infections by other members of the TBEV complex. (elsevier.com)
  • Skin infections account the most common clinical manifestations in children. (springer.com)
  • At one institution, before 2000, the infection disease and the infection control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Cross-reactivity in serological tests for Lyme disease and other spirochetal infections. (nih.gov)
  • Strong cross-reactivity occurred when sera from individuals with Lyme disease, tick-borne relapsing fever, and louse-borne relapsing fever were tested against heterologous Borrelia antigens. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, routine hygiene procedures form an essential part of horse management by preventing disease and minimising the potential spread of infection. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized 'hotspot. (harvard.edu)
  • As an immunodeficiency disease, HIV infection could be associated with a higher risk of acquiring COVID-19 and/or worse outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Health experts around the world are warning more loudly than ever that halting social-distancing measures just when the infection curve is being blunted could result in a deadly second wave of the COVID-19 disease. (indianewengland.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). (natap.org)
  • Next, the researchers tested the functional properties of their model by exposing it to a virus and to Toxoplasma gondii , a parasite found in cat feces that can lead to fetal infection, causing miscarriage, congenital disease and/or disability later in life. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The scale differentiated between subgroups of persons with the hepatitis B infection in terms of age, gender, employment, education, disease duration, and stage of disease. (ovid.com)
  • India's COVID-19 caseload mounted to 84,62,080 with 50,356 infections being reported in a day, while the number of people who have recuperated from the disease crossed 78 lakh pushing the national recovery rate to 92.41%, according to data updated by the Union Health Ministry on Saturday. (freepressjournal.in)
  • GIDEON Guide to Cross Border Infections summarizes the status of 2,931 Infectious Disease events which involved two-or-more countries. (gideononline.com)
  • Monitoring of dengue virus infections is an important component of assessing the disease risk to humans. (asm.org)
  • There is a need for early diagnosis of dengue infection since the early diagnosis of the disease can prevent fatal cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Shah, KV, Dandawate, CN & Bhatt, PN 2012, ' Kyasanur forest disease virus: Viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection ', F1000Research , vol. 1, 61. (elsevier.com)
  • Since the beginning of the pandemic, Ontario has seen 502,171 cases of the disease across the province, including 464,531 infections that are considered to be resolved. (ctvnews.ca)
  • In the global burden of disease (GBD) study carried out between 2000 and 2004, high-intensity infections with STHs were given a zero disability weight (DW), while the cognitive impairment which can result from such infections was assigned DWs ranging from 0.024 to 0.463 [on a scale from 0 (perfect health) to 1 (death)], depending on the helminth species [ 11 , 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A veterinary surgeon must be contacted immediately if strangles is suspected as early diagnosis and treatment are essential for the individual animal and to prevent the spread of infection. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Differential diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections can be complicated due to the high degree of cross-reactivity observed in most serodiagnostic assays. (asm.org)
  • These results highlight a need for improved diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection in pregnant women in Tanzania, in order to prevent vertical transmission. (sun.ac.za)
  • In the current study, House finches were infected initially with either West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses and then challenged 6 weeks post infection with either homologous or heterologous viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • This barrier surface is especially vulnerable to infection, yet respiratory infections rarely cause fatal encephalitis, suggesting a highly evolved immunological defense. (sciencemag.org)
  • CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are critical for viral clearance from the lungs upon influenza virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Learn essential skills and knowledge to decrease the risk and transmission of infection while undertaking your daily duties, with the Cross-Sector Infection Control Skill Set course at Victoria University Polytechnic. (edu.au)
  • This skill set is for workers in the security sector and education and care sector who require the skills and knowledge to reduce the risk and transmission of infection while carrying out routine work activities in their job role. (edu.au)
  • It recognises that there is no reliable way to completely prevent the risk of cross infection. (cfnz.org.nz)
  • The risk of infection remains for people with CF who have had a lung transplant. (cfnz.org.nz)
  • For outdoor events there is no way to completely prevent the risk of cross infection and the safest approach is for people with CF not to attend, if they do people with CF should be separated by a distance of 4 metres. (cfnz.org.nz)
  • Horses are particularly at risk, being prone to small puncture wounds (eg from thorns or nails), through which infection can enter the body and then thrive. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • The risk of infection varies from area to area and from horse to horse, with younger horses (and those with impaired health) at greater risk. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Strict hygiene measures should be adopted, to minimise the risk of infection spreading to other horses. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Further studies are needed to understand the potential risk of transmission and clinical sequelae in individuals with previously undetected EBOV infection. (harvard.edu)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that a diet based on the combined intake of nutrients with antioxidant properties might reduce the risk of hrHPV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Better understanding would yet be important to obtain an impression about a potential contribution of HIV to an excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection in PLWH. (springer.com)
  • 3. The incidence of newly acquired infection measured by the rate of incident donors is also much lower than results from specific at‑risk populations in Australia. (transfusion.com.au)
  • The current rate highlights the importance of promoting donor education to ensure that the potential donors understand the importance of 'self‑deferral' to reduce the risk of collecting blood from a potentially infected donor whose infection may not be detected by testing. (transfusion.com.au)
  • Various risk factors for oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been described, including tobacco smoking and sexual behavior. (springer.com)
  • Despite this, water birthing was found to be safe for the neonate and did not carry a higher risk of neonatal infection when compared with conventional vaginal delivery. (minervamedica.it)
  • In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2-3.6), and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1-0.8). (biomedcentral.com)
  • HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection with HIV has been shown to increase the risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The survey assessed participant's risk behaviours ( e.g., injecting drug use, condom use), concerns related to HIV infection risk ( e.g., medical care exposures, personal behaviours), and ability to identify HIV-positive individuals without asking their status. (jidc.org)
  • Risk factors for persistent infection by sexually transmitted types include early age of first sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, smoking, and poor immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many infections, the baby is more at risk at particular stages of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dengue virus co-circulates as four serotypes, and sequential infections with more than one serotype are common. (sciencemag.org)
  • The nationwide tally of confirmed Coronavirus cases crossed the 1,000-mark and the death toll reached 27 on Sunday, even as the central government ordered sealing of all state and district borders to check community transmission of the deadly virus by migrant workers and asked those having left already to be quarantined for 14 days. (indiatimes.com)
  • Infection can occur following inhalation of the airborne virus from other infected horses or by indirect transmission via, for example, the stable, equipment or grooms. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Signs of infection, which begin to develop a few days after exposure to the virus, include a husky cough and nasal discharge (which changes over a period of four to five days from thin to thick mucus), combined with general signs of ill health. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • A cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted to assess the proportion of persons exposed to hantaviruses in a virus-endemic area of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. (cdc.gov)
  • Introduction: Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. (harvard.edu)
  • Strikingly, lung migratory CD103+ DCs were not productively infected by influenza virus and thus were able to induce virus-specific CD8+ T cells through the cross-presentation of antigens from virally infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • Although mortality rates were high during initial infection with West Nile virus, prior infection with either virus prevented mortality upon challenge with West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • We describe herein the molecular events following poliovirus infection that lead to PML-dependent p53 activation and protection against virus infection. (asm.org)
  • PML deficiency also renders mice more susceptible to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and VSV infections, further attesting to the antiviral activity of PML in vivo ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats ( Lynx rufus ) and mountain lions ( Puma concolor ) in a small number of animals in California and Florida. (usgs.gov)
  • While valuable tools for diagnosing presumptive flaviviral infections, these assays use antigens prepared from virus-infected suckling mouse brains (SMB). (asm.org)
  • During natural flavivirus infections, noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of viral premembrane/membrane (prM/M) and envelope (E) proteins are produced in addition to mature, infectious virions ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • The extent of cross-reactivity within such individuals, each infected with characterized virus, might reflect the type of cross-reactive immune response inducible by a monovalent vaccine. (ovid.com)
  • Given the well-documented viral archeology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emergence following human exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an understanding of processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. (asm.org)
  • Dalla Torre D, Burtscher D, Edlinger M, Solder E, Widschwendter A, Rasse M, Puelacher W (2015) Comparison of the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in histopathologically confirmed premalignant oral lesions and healthy oral mucosa by brush smear detection. (springer.com)
  • The oligoadenylate-synthetase ( Oas ) gene locus provides innate immune resistance to virus infection. (g3journal.org)
  • We found that the syncytiotrophoblasts formed in our system recapitulated the barrier properties of the naturally occurring cells and they resisted infection by a model virus and three genetically different strains of Toxoplasma," said co-investigator Jon P. Boyle, Ph.D., associate professor of biological sciences at Pitt. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Kurane, Ichiro 2011-06-01 00:00:00 Neutralizing antibody responses were examined in monkeys after dengue virus infections. (deepdyve.com)
  • Neutralizing antibody responses were examined in monkeys after dengue virus infections. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this study, antibody response induced by H7N9 virus infection and immunization with inactivated and viral-vectored H7N9 vaccines in na?ve chickens was analyzed. (flu.org.cn)
  • We attempted to determine whether IgM responses in dengue virus infections are serotype specific or serotype cross-reactive. (asm.org)
  • IgM responses were serotype cross-reactive in these 13 cases but were highest against infecting dengue virus serotype in 9 of the 13 cases. (asm.org)
  • Although detection of dengue immunoglobulin M (IgM) is widely used diagnostic method for dengue, it has not been determined whether IgM responses in dengue virus infections are dengue virus serotype specific or serotype cross-reactive. (asm.org)
  • We find that IgM responses are dengue virus serotype cross-reactive in most cases but that the highest responses are against the infecting serotype. (asm.org)
  • In mice, intranasal infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) does result in infection of sensory neurons in the olfactory bulb. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, using a mouse model, we sought to understand the mechanism by which innate and adaptive immune cells thwart neuroinvasion by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a potentially lethal virus that uses olfactory sensory neurons to enter the brain after nasal infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • All positive cases were considered to be either recent infections or past contact with an antigenically closely related virus in humans older than 65 years. (inserm.fr)
  • Spain has the world's second-highest death toll after Italy, with the virus so far claiming 9,053 lives and the number of confirmed cases reaching 102,136, although the rate of new infections continued its downward trend, health ministry figures showed. (bhatkallys.com)
  • The hepatitis B virus is large and does not cross the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Providing high specificity and low cross-reactivity, the NS1-based ELISA has the potential to aid in counselling patients, pregnant women and travellers after returning from ZIKV-endemic areas. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The sample included 562 pregnant women, and prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 12.3% (95%CI: 9.6-15.0). (scielosp.org)
  • Malaria infection is associated with adverse birth outcomes that affect the mother, foetus, and infant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine the predictors of malaria infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More than one-third of the infected cases in both malaria infections and malaria/helminth co infections are undernourished. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites have negative impact upon host nutrition through a number of mechanisms which may have additive or multiplicative impacts, especially in childhood [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results indicate that IgM responses are generally dengue serotype cross-reactive but that IgM levels are highest against the infecting serotype in most dengue cases. (asm.org)
  • Dengue viruses, members of the family Flaviviridae , include four antigenically cross-reactive serotypes and are endemic in the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. (asm.org)
  • India's COVID-19 tally had crossed the 20-lakh mark on August 7, 30 lakh on August 23 and 40 lakh on September 5. (freepressjournal.in)
  • It went past 50 lakh on September 16, 60 lakh on September 28, 70 lakh on October 11 and crossed 80 lakh on October 29. (freepressjournal.in)
  • Does the effectiveness of BCG vaccine on latent TB infection last into adulthood? (bmj.com)