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  • chromatin
  • Beginning with a historical perspective and important properties of CpG islands, the book continues with sections on computational and wet lab methods related to the study of DNA methylation, and in-depth protocols for the analysis of CpG island functional features including epigenetic profiling and chromatin interactions. (springer.com)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation of a mono-allelically methylated CGI confirmed that Cfp1 specifically associates with non-methylated CpG sites in vivo . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The data indicate that a primary function of non-methylated CGIs is to genetically influence the local chromatin modification state by interaction with Cfp1 and perhaps other CpG-binding proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To characterize the chromatin modifications typical of CGIs, we used the methyl-CpG-sensitive restriction endonuclease HinPI (cleavage site GCGC) to release small chromatin fragments from purified brain nuclei, as described previously 9 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This mechanism acts to create a chromatin environment at CpG islands that highlights these regulatory elements and differentiates them from non-regulatory regions in large complex mammalian genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CGIs
  • Those studies revealed that the mouse has undergone a faster CpG loss than the human, thus, has fewer CGIs and weaker CGI characteristics. (hindawi.com)
  • CGIs have known functions in the transcription initiation and outstanding compositional features like high G+C content and CpG ratios when compared to the bulk DNA. (springer.com)
  • In addition, we illustrate how to easily cross the output of a CpG island prediction algorithm with our methylation database to detect differentially methylated CGIs. (springer.com)
  • Cytosine
  • The majority of CpG pairs in mammals are chemically modified by the covalent attachment of a methyl group to the C5 position of the cytosine ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • A CpG island is a Cytosine and Guanine linked by a phosphate in a repeated sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • CpG sites are DNA regions where a cytosine nucleotide occurs next to a guanine nucleotide. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CpG islands are generally 200 to 2000 base pairs long, have a C:G base pair content >50%, and have regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide and this occurs frequently in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, DNA methylation occurs at the 5' position of the pyrimidine ring of the cytosine residues within CpG sites to form 5-methylcytosines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adult somatic tissues, cytosine residues may be methylated, and this occurs almost exclusively within a symmetric CpG context. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, cytosine-specific methyltransferases methylate certain CpG sequences, which are believed to modulate gene expression and cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups to specific CpG structures in DNA, a process called DNA methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Additionally, we analyzed the methylation frequency of the CpG island of cell cycle inhibitor p16 INK4a in the same thyroid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These observations in the E6-expressing HMEC correlate well with the finding that CpG island methylation is a mechanism of p16 inactivation in the development of human tumors, including breast cancer. (asm.org)
  • Recently, CpG island methylation within the p16 promoter has been identified as a mechanism to eliminate p16 expression in a variety of human tumors ( 23 , 25 , 38 , 44 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • Regulation
  • This detailed volume examines bioinformatic and molecular biological methods useful to identify and to explore the functions of CpG islands, key navigation points to understand gene regulation in fundamental processes such as development and cell differentiation as well as in diseases like cancer. (springer.com)
  • Deaton AM, Bird A (2011) CpG islands and the regulation of transcription. (springer.com)