• A negative result does not negate the presence of the organism or active disease, as false-negative results may occur due to inhibition of PCR, sequence variability underlying the primers and probes, or the presence of Coxiella burnetii in quantities less than the limit of detection of the assay. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • 1. Frangoulidis D, Meyer H, Kahlhofer C, Splettstoesser WD: 'Real-time' PCR-based detection of Coxiella burnetii using conventional techniques. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Mayo Medical Laboratories has developed a real-time PCR test that rapidly detects Coxiella burnetii DNA in clinical specimens by targeting a sequence of the shikimate dehydrogenase gene ( aroE ) unique to Coxiella burnetii . (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • A negative result does not negate the presence of the organism or active disease, as false-negative results may occur due to inhibition of PCR, sequence variability underlying the primers and probes, or the presence of Coxiella burnetii in quantities less than the limit of detection of the assay. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • The first description of what may have been Coxiella burnetii was published in 1925 by Hideyo Noguchi, but since his samples did not survive, it remains unclear as to whether it was the same organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around the same time, Derrick proposed the name Rickettsia burnetii, in recognition of Burnet's contribution in identifying the organism as a Rickettsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • C burnetii is highly infectious, and a single organism can reportedly cause infection via the aerosol route in people. (colorado.gov)
  • C. burnetii resists the degradative functions of the vacuole while at the same time exploiting the acidic pH for metabolic activation. (nih.gov)
  • The pathogen persists in the environment as a metabolically quiescent small cell variant (SCV), which transforms into a metabolically active large cell variant (LCV) within a lysosome-derived, acidic (pH ~4.5), Coxiella -containing vacuole (CCV) ( Voth and Heinzen, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The pathogen employs a type 4B secretion system (T4BSS) to deliver effector proteins into the host cell that modify the Coxiella- containing vacuole (CCV) into a replication-permissive niche. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogenic bacterium that replicates within a lysosomal vacuole. (asm.org)
  • Biogenesis of the Coxiella -containing vacuole (CCV) requires effector proteins delivered into the host cell cytosol by the type 4B secretion system (T4BSS). (asm.org)
  • C. burnetii colonizes alveolar macrophages, where it occupies a vacuole that matures canonically within the endosomal pathway, culminating in lysosome fusion ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • By mechanisms not fully understood, C. burnetii resists degradation by acid hydrolases delivered by ongoing fusion of lysosomes with the Coxiella -containing vacuole (CCV). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, 3-methyladenine and wortmannin, agents known to inhibit early stages in the autophagic process, each blocked Coxiella vacuole formation. (asm.org)
  • Together, these data demonstrate that specific inhibition of mTORC1 by C. burnetii , but not amplified cell catabolism via autophagy, is required for optimal pathogen replication. (asm.org)
  • We show that C. burnetii interaction with MCs does not result in bacterial uptake but rather induces the formation of extracellular actin filaments named cytonemes. (asm.org)
  • These findings indicate that C. burnetii inhibition of mTORC1 without accelerated autophagy promotes bacterial growth. (asm.org)
  • While C. burnetii multiplied in untreated monocytes, IFN-γ reduced bacterial viability after 24 h of treatment and reached maximum inhibition after 96 h. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, the IL-1 receptor antagonist did not affect C. burnetii survival, suggesting that IL-1β was not involved in the bacterial killing induced by IFN-γ. (jimmunol.org)
  • The data reveal that in response to C. burnetii , MCs release extracellular actin filaments that contain antimicrobial agents and are capable to trap and kill bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies indicate that C. burnetii evolved from a tick-associated ancestor and that the metabolic capabilities of C. burnetii are different from that of Coxiella -like bacteria found in ticks. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, Coxiella burnetii bacteria live and replicate in acidified compartments with phagolysosomal characteristics ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that sustained C. burnetii protein synthesis is required for PV fusion with other vacuoles of the endocytic pathway. (nih.gov)
  • These autophagosomal features suggest that Coxiella vacuoles interact with the autophagic pathway. (asm.org)
  • Our analyses identified a large number of putative foreign-origin genes in C. burnetii , including tRNA Glu 2 that is potentially required for heme biosynthesis, and genes involved in the production of lipopolysaccharide-a virulence factor, and of critical metabolites such as fatty acids and biotin. (frontiersin.org)
  • A unique characteristic of the CPV is the acidic environment (pH ∼5.0), which is required to activate Coxiella metabolism and the Coxiella type 4 secretion system (T4SS), a major virulence factor required for intracellular survival. (iupui.edu)
  • Together, these data suggest that CPV pH is an important limiting factor for Coxiella growth and virulence. (iupui.edu)
  • The relative inefficiency of antibiotics results from the inhibition of their bactericidal activity by the low pH of phagosomal vacuoles in which C. burnetii multiplies. (jimmunol.org)
  • Unadjusted odds ratios showed that governorate of residence, consumption of raw milk, and ownership of sheep, goats, and dogs were significantly ( P ≤ 0.05) associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. (ajtmh.org)
  • Discussion: Seropositivity for C. burnetii need not necessarily translate into infectivity status of the animal. (doaj.org)
  • Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infections among North Dakota sheep producers. (cdc.gov)
  • Most human infections occur through inhalation of aerosols originating from ruminants that shed C. burnetii during parturition and in milk. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we report that C. burnetii inhibits mTORC1 as evidenced by impaired localization of mTORC1 to endolysosomal membranes and decreased phosphorylation of elF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and S6 kinase 1 in infected cells. (asm.org)
  • C burnetii is common in livestock and animal testing does have limitations, as shedding can be intermittent. (colorado.gov)
  • Based on these observations, we reasoned that horizontally derived biosynthetic genes that have been retained in the reduced genome of C. burnetii are ideal candidates to begin to uncover its intracellular metabolic requirements. (frontiersin.org)
  • In spite of its intracellular nature, where chances for horizontal gene transfer are minimum, the genome of C. burnetii contains 31 insertion sequence (IS) elements spread across its genome, an intein in the C-terminal region of the replicative DNA helicase (DnaB) and two self-splicing group I introns (Cbu_L1917 and Cbu_L1951) along with an IVS in the 23S rRNA gene ( Minnick and Raghavan, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In this chapter, we review current knowledge of PV nature and development, and discuss disparate data related to the ultimate maturation state of PV harboring virulent or avirulent C. burnetii lipopolysaccharide phase variants in human mononuclear phagocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Levels of the resulting 23S rRNA fragments that flank the IVS, F1 (~1.2 kb) and F2 (~1.7 kb), were quantified over C. burnetii 's logarithmic growth phase (1-5 d). (frontiersin.org)
  • A total of 781 individuals from 11 governorates of Jordan were tested by SERION ELISA classic C. burnetii IgG Phase 2. (ajtmh.org)
  • The localization and role of wild-type and mutated Rab5 and Rab7, markers of early and late endosomes, respectively, were also examined to determine the role of these small GTPases in the trafficking of C. burnetii phase II. (asm.org)
  • Coxiella -containing large vacuoles were labeled with wild-type Rab7 (Rab7wt) and with GTPase-deficient mutant Rab7Q67L, whereas no colocalization was observed with the dominant-negative mutant Rab7T22N. (asm.org)
  • In 2010, these studies were continued in two areas studied in 2009, in the provinces of Noord-Brabant and Zuid-Limburg, to investigate if C. burnetii DNA was still present in aerosols in these areas. (rivm.nl)
  • In both areas, the C. burnetii DNA content in aerosols obtained in 2010 seemed to have declined in comparison to data of the same locations visited in 2009. (rivm.nl)
  • J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells with mature C. burnetii PV were incubated with latex beads and the trafficking of beads to PV was quantified. (nih.gov)
  • However, C. burnetii did not accelerate autophagy or block autophagic flux triggered by cell starvation. (asm.org)
  • Canonical inhibition of mTORC1 by starvation or inhibitor treatment that induces autophagic flux does not benefit C. burnetii growth. (asm.org)
  • Results: A total of 15 antibody positive and three antibody-negative serum samples belonging to 11 goat, 4 sheep, 1 cattle, and 2 buffaloes were tested in duplicate for the presence of C. burnetii DNA by the commercial agar gel PCR kit and an in-house Trans-PCR. (doaj.org)
  • Reactive oxygen intermediates were not required for C. burnetii killing, since monocytes from patients with chronic granulomatous disease were microbicidal in response to IFN-γ. (jimmunol.org)
  • This is an extremely low infectious dose (only 1-10 organisms required), making C. burnetii one of the most infectious known organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • We next examined whether sustained C. burnetii protein synthesis is necessary for maintenance of PV fusogenicity. (nih.gov)
  • Reports have implicated C burnetii as a cause of infertility and sporadic abortion with necrotizing placentitis in ruminants. (colorado.gov)
  • Conversely, seronegative ruminants can shed C. burnetii. (doaj.org)
  • Only one buffalo serum sample was positive for C. burnetii with a band at 243 bp in in-house Trans-PCR. (doaj.org)
  • Rather, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed individual C. burnetii in small, tight PV scattered throughout the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that IFN-γ promotes the killing of C. burnetii in monocytes through an apoptotic mechanism mediated in part by TNF. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mature, spacious PV containing multiple nonreplicating C. burnetii were clearly visible in infected Vero cells treated with the cell wall inhibitor carbenicillin. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that MCs use an extracellular sophisticated mechanism of defense to eliminate intracellular pathogens, such as C. burnetii , before their entry into host cells. (asm.org)
  • Here, we report that C. burnetii growth is enhanced by T4BSS-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 that does not activate autophagy. (asm.org)