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  • methods
  • While previous studies have compared the cost of different PN preparation methods, this analysis evaluates both the direct costs of PN and the treatment costs for BSI associated with different PN delivery methods to determine whether compounded or manufactured pre-mixed PN has lower overall costs. (springer.com)
  • Submissions may address the link between theory and practice, the methods used to estimate particular types of costs or benefits, the application of BCA to specific case studies, the role of BCA in decision making, or any other relevant topic. (sra.org)
  • BCA is defined as a collection of methods and rules for assessing the social costs and benefits of alternative public policies. (trb.org)
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis focuses on maximising the average level of an outcome, distributional cost-effectiveness analysis extends the core methods of CEA to incorporate concerns for the distribution of outcomes as well as their average level and make trade-offs between equity and efficiency, these more sophisticated methods are of particular interest when analysing interventions to tackle health inequality . (wikipedia.org)
  • and enhancing the process with customized methods configured to available data, existing regional analysis tools, and the specific needs of the analysis. (dot.gov)
  • Different analysis methods and tools are typically more appropriately scaled to analysis at different geographic scopes. (dot.gov)
  • Since a disproportionate amount of the expected benefits of these strategies are incurred during non-typical conditions, the use of conventional analysis methods focused solely on typical recurring conditions will often result in the severe underestimation of potential benefits. (dot.gov)
  • LCCA
  • Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is a method for assessing the total cost of facility ownership. (wbdg.org)
  • LCCA is especially useful when project alternatives that fulfill the same performance requirements, but differ with respect to initial costs and operating costs, have to be compared in order to select the one that maximizes net savings. (wbdg.org)
  • For example, LCCA will help determine whether the incorporation of a high-performance HVAC or glazing system , which may increase initial cost but result in dramatically reduced operating and maintenance costs, is cost-effective or not. (wbdg.org)
  • The purpose of an LCCA is to estimate the overall costs of project alternatives and to select the design that ensures the facility will provide the lowest overall cost of ownership consistent with its quality and function . (wbdg.org)
  • The LCCA should be performed early in the design process while there is still a chance to refine the design to ensure a reduction in life-cycle costs (LCC). (wbdg.org)
  • LCCA can be repeated throughout the design process if more detailed cost information becomes available. (wbdg.org)
  • Tunnel Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is a data-driven tool that provides a detailed account of the total costs of the project over its expected life. (railwayage.com)
  • The feasibility study on selecting a tunnel or bridges goes beyond costs and LCCA e.g. the geological conditions, duration of construction, environmental impact, technology availability, constructability and ecological and even political consideration dominates the decision. (railwayage.com)
  • need, applications & features of life cycle cost analysis (LCCA). (railwayage.com)
  • The various transportation companies saved hundreds of millions of dollars by not investing in a project that was not worth the full cost using LCCA. (railwayage.com)
  • Managers looking to break away from this shortsighted strategy instead can explore and embrace the concept of life-cycle-cost analysis (LCCA). (facilitiesnet.com)
  • LCCA is defined as a method for evaluating all relevant costs over the performance life of a project, product or facility. (facilitiesnet.com)
  • The idea behind calculating LCCA is to maximize the costs by comparing them to alternative choices that are similar, yet different in cost structures. (facilitiesnet.com)
  • For example, LCCA can help managers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing a high-efficiency air handling unit or an economy version. (facilitiesnet.com)
  • Why is it that so few organizations seem to understand and LCCA or apply it when 70 percent of an asset's costs are wrapped up in energy and maintenance expenses? (facilitiesnet.com)
  • Managers can apply the LCCA method to many different kinds of decisions on both large and small scales when the focus is on determining the lowest-cost alternative for achieving a given level of performance. (facilitiesnet.com)
  • This course will provide you with an introduction to the principles of conducting a life-cycle cost analysis and suggestions on how to use economic analysis to evaluate design alternatives and how to consider non-monetary benefits as part of the LCCA process. (wbdg.org)
  • conduct
  • To conduct the coffee-ring analysis, Lahr, graduate student Xiaoyan Li, and undergraduates Selett Allen and Alyssa Sanderson dried droplets of various tap water samples on low-cost aluminum substrates. (eurekalert.org)
  • TRB's National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Research Report 38: Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Analyses of Multimodal, Multijurisdictional Freight Corridor Investments explores how to conduct benefit-cost analyses (BCAs). (trb.org)
  • In response to the needs of system operators to conduct these specialized analyses, several initiatives have been undertaken in recent years at the national, state, and regional levels to develop enhanced analysis methodologies capable of assessing the benefits of operations strategies specifically targeted at improving travel during non-typical conditions. (dot.gov)
  • Office of Operations recently completed the Benefit/Cost Analysis for Operations Planning Desk Reference, in recognition that practitioners were in need of relevant and practical guidance in how to effectively conduct benefit/cost analysis of a wide spectrum of transportation system management and operations strategies. (dot.gov)
  • assess
  • In this paper partial equilibrium trade models and stochastic bioeconomic impact simulation models are combined to present a benefit cost analysis template to assess market access requests. (repec.org)
  • To assess the cost of treatment with NXB and compare it to the SOC cost. (hindawi.com)
  • We then assess expected cost of using a risk prediction algorithm to determine who gets the enhanced screening method under the strong assumption that risk and diagnostic performance are independent. (spie.org)
  • For example, an analysis of a ramp metering deployment should not only attempt to assess the change in roadway performance within the immediate merge area, but also should attempt to include an assessment of conditions in the ramp queue, at adjacent intersections, and possibly on parallel arterials or freeway facilities, if they are likely to be impacted by the deployment. (dot.gov)
  • Analyzing operations projects within a conventional benefit/cost analysis framework designed to assess more traditional capacity expansion projects can be challenging since many traditional benefit/cost analyses focus on measurement of project benefits based on 'typical' (average demand, good weather, no incident) days. (dot.gov)
  • Therefore, a different approach to conducting analysis and benefit/cost estimation for operations strategies is often required to fully assess and capture the expected benefits. (dot.gov)
  • The first step in the multi-scenario analysis approach is to assess the distribution of operating conditions and the impact these conditions have on traffic performance measures. (dot.gov)
  • estimation
  • Conceptual and estimation issues related to cost of illness studies. (springer.com)
  • One of the significant objectives of software engineering community is to use effective and useful models for precise calculation of effort in software cost estimation. (scribd.com)
  • Also, the project attributes of cost estimation are measured in terms of linguistic values whose imprecision leads to confusion and ambiguity while explaining the process. (scribd.com)
  • Fuzzy logic cost estimation models are more suitable for projects with indistinct and imprecise information. (scribd.com)
  • baseline
  • We assessed the cost of the software, materials, and personnel for baseline usual care (BUC) compared with augmented usual care (AUC [ie, automated patient outreach]) and augmented usual care with physician input (AUCPI [ie, outreach mediated by physicians' knowledge of their patient panels]) over 1 year. (ajmc.com)
  • This study provides a baseline of current costs for the lung cancer diagnostic workup prior to the introduction of major lung cancer screening programs. (eurekalert.org)
  • therefore, the analysis must include analysis of conditions 'without' the project (no-build baseline assessment) and 'with' the project. (dot.gov)
  • total
  • A total of 44 358 hospitalized patients aged ≥18 years who received PN between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2007 were included in the analyses. (springer.com)
  • The estimated total direct medical cost per patient was slightly lower using paroxeline ($US2348) than generic imipramine ($US2448) as first-line therapy. (springer.com)
  • and the total health care costs associated with end-of-life care. (cmaj.ca)
  • Assuming the value of this time accrues to the network, total costs of cancer screening efforts over the study year were $3.83 million for AUC, $3.88 million for AUCPI, and $4.10 million for BUC. (ajmc.com)
  • WETDRS total screening cost reduction was $43,710 for eye physician services avoided, which was then applied as a proxy for gain from investment to the program's return on investment (ROI) of teleretinal screening. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Only 15 percent of the total cost of ownership for a product is its procurement or acquisition, according to research. (facilitiesnet.com)
  • The results of this study show that the total diagnostic workup cost for the study sample of patients was $38.3 million. (eurekalert.org)
  • Of the total diagnostic workup cost, 43.1 percent ($16.5 million) is attributed to the biopsy costs for the 761 patients in the study sample who had negative biopsies and who were not diagnosed with lung cancer during the following year. (eurekalert.org)
  • For patients diagnosed with lung cancer, the average total cost of the diagnostic workup was $7,567 (standard deviation (SD) = $11,062). (eurekalert.org)
  • In patients not diagnosed with lung cancer, the average total cost of the diagnostic workup was $3,558 (SD = $23,089). (eurekalert.org)
  • Screening
  • An automated cancer screening outreach tool implemented in a mature health information technology environment can achieve cost savings through reduced clinician time devoted to screening efforts. (ajmc.com)
  • We analyzed costs from a randomized trial of 2 health IT strategies to improve cancer screening compared with usual care from the perspective of a primary care network. (ajmc.com)
  • To determine the cost of teleretinal screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) through primary care, we conducted a retrospective review from program initiation through February 2013 (45-month time period). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Comparison was made between screening cost by WETDRS and by direct eye clinic visit without teleretinal imaging for same noncompliant patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As a proxy for fiscal cost of teleretinal screening to health plan payers, we applied the 2013 Medicare physician reimbursement rates based on the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Calculation of ROI did not account for teleretinal screening of all diabetic patients or camera downtime/residual value (underestimation) and additional hardware and staff costs (overestimation). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, in terms of the hit-rate and false-alarm rate of the of the risk prediction algorithm, iso-cost contours are lines with slope determined by properties of the available diagnostic systems for screening. (spie.org)
  • From this analysis, it was found that the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) lung cancer screening guidelines were not followed, which resulted in many patients who ultimately had a negative lung cancer diagnosis undergoing unnecessary biopsies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Measurement
  • Program material is drawn from our popular and highly rated MBA course on managerial accounting, and topics include product costing, activity based management, flexible budgeting, variance analysis, and performance measurement systems. (mit.edu)
  • economic
  • Linking Risk and Economic Assessments in the Analysis of Plant Pest Regulations: The Case of U.S. Imports of Mexican Avocados ," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21339, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association). (repec.org)
  • Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States ," Ecological Economics , Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 273-288, February. (repec.org)
  • Indirect costs in economic studies: confronting the confusion. (springer.com)
  • Economic burden of cancer across the European Union: a population-based cost analysis. (nih.gov)
  • For example, an economic analysis may indicate a regional increase in jobs as a result of the increased regional productivity provided by an improvement. (dot.gov)
  • strategic
  • The report is an essential source for key operational metrics, analysis and provides a strategic insight into the company. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Whereas financial accounting is used primarily to communicate the overall results for an entire organization to external parties, strategic cost analysis helps you answer the granular, day-to-day questions: How much does this product cost to make? (mit.edu)
  • analytical
  • A simulation decision analytical model was used to compare the annual direct medical costs of treating patients with major depression using the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine or the tricyclic antidepressant (TeA) imipramine. (springer.com)
  • typically
  • Typically the CEA is expressed in terms of a ratio where the denominator is a gain in health from a measure (years of life, premature births averted, sight-years gained) and the numerator is the cost associated with the health gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The purpose of this study was to compare costs in the US associated with compounded PN versus pre-mixed multi-chamber bag (MCB) PN based on underlying infection risk. (springer.com)
  • The cost of antidepressant drug therapy failure: a study of antidepressant use patterns in a Medicaid population. (springer.com)
  • This prospective study analyzed the time and costs involved in fabricating implant prostheses in private practice and the factors affecting prosthesis design. (quintpub.com)
  • The cost analysis was performed in accordance with the weighted average Italian Health Ministry DRGs and with Conferenza Stato/Regioni 2003 and the study by Tan et al. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effective cost of treatment of patients with intermediate-deep burns treated with NXB and compare it to the cost of treatment with SOC. (hindawi.com)
  • The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. (unt.edu)
  • n the comparative study of the service or production costs of a service or item and its value to the subject. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • WETDRS generated an average cost reduction per screen of $24.38, giving a ROI of −0.47, meaning that 53% of the investment cost had been gained back by study end. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A.-D.T.P. is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The study examined the utilization rates and estimated the Medicare costs of the lung cancer diagnostic workup in patients who had an abnormal chest computed tomography (CT) scan. (eurekalert.org)
  • reduction
  • The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components. (unt.edu)
  • Computational results indicate significant reduction in waste treatment costs for the Upper Houston Ship Channel can be obtained through the use of systems analysis and optimization techniques. (tdl.org)
  • PharmacoEconomics
  • In the context of pharmacoeconomics , the cost-effectiveness of a therapeutic or preventive intervention is the ratio of the cost of the intervention to a relevant measure of its effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • And it doesn't matter if the task is "to catalog a book," or "to answer a reference question," or "maintain a serial title," the answer is always, "It depends on how your library is structured and what you include in the cost factors. (ala.org)
  • 5 We updated their model to include more recent and detailed demographic estimates of the patients who may choose medical assistance in dying, including age, sex and underlying diagnosis, in addition to Canadian-specific cost data. (cmaj.ca)
  • Initial costs may include capital investment costs for land acquisition, construction, or renovation and for the equipment needed to operate a facility. (wbdg.org)
  • the benefits evaluated include projected ↓ in future health care costs and ↑ earning as a result of the intervention of interest. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The scope of the deployment(s) to be analyzed is a critical factor in determining the appropriate facilities to include in the analysis, as well as a determinant in selecting an appropriate analysis tool. (dot.gov)
  • If the analyst were conducting an analysis of the benefits that could be gained if the improvement were funded from 100-percent local funding, they may include these benefits as they represent a regional gain. (dot.gov)
  • The "Baby Project" is a two part project that will include a cost analysis of proper care for a baby and two opinion questions. (somervillenjk12.org)
  • operations
  • Sasol Limited Oil & Gas Exploration and Production Operations and Cost Analysis is the latest report from GlobalData, the industry analysis specialists, that offers comprehensive information on the operational and financial performance of the company. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report provides an annual and quarterly overview of oil and gas reserves and production, changes in reserves, costs incurred and results of oil and gas operations, acreage and well details, share price performance and key valuation metrics. (marketpublishers.com)
  • It gives a comprehensive overview of oil and gas production and reserves, costs incurred and results of oil and gas operations, acreage and well details and other performance metrics. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Dorchester Minerals LP Oil & Gas Exploration and Production Operations and Cost Analysis is the latest report from GlobalData, the industry analysis specialists, that offers comprehensive information on the operational and financial performance of the company. (marketpublishers.com)
  • This guidance includes a synopsis of analysis strategies intended to better measure and quantify the benefits of operations strategies impacting non-typical traffic conditions caused by incidents, inclement weather, construction work zones, and special events. (dot.gov)
  • Method
  • Using the Monte Carlo method, the probabilities and cost ranges in the case studies can be predicted, in turn resulting in better decisions in the selection of hardening options which are cost effective. (mdpi.com)
  • Careful assessment of the analysis needs and mapping to an appropriate analysis method or tool will provide for a better use of scarce analysis resources, and help minimize the possibility of discovering that the selected analysis method is incapable of successfully completing the analysis when the evaluation is half-finished. (dot.gov)
  • strategy also plays a key role in the selection of an appropriate analysis method/tool. (dot.gov)
  • determine
  • Our aim was to determine the potential costs and savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. (cmaj.ca)
  • His role, he said, is to determine whether a regulation is beneficial enough to warrant the cost it imposes. (env-econ.net)
  • Students will determine the costs associated with teenage pregnancy and childbirth through age 1 of the child. (somervillenjk12.org)
  • acquisition
  • In this analysis of real-world PN use, MCB PN is associated with lower costs than compounded PN with regards to both PN acquisition and potential avoidance of BSI. (springer.com)
  • Direct medical costs included the wholesale drug acquisition costs (based on a 6-month course of drug therapy), psychiatrist and/or general practitioner visits, hospital outpatient visits, hospitalisation and electroconvulsive therapy. (springer.com)
  • despite its 15-fold higher acquisition cost compared with imipramine. (springer.com)
  • Land acquisition costs need to be included in the initial cost estimate if they differ among design alternatives. (wbdg.org)
  • cancers
  • In a population-based cost analysis, we evaluated the cost of all cancers and also those associated with breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Proportion
  • Biopsy costs comprise a significant proportion of the overall cost of diagnosing lung cancer," said lead author Tasneem Lokhandwala, MS, PhD, a data analyst at Xcenda, an AmerisourceBergen company, in Palm Harbor, Florida. (eurekalert.org)
  • risks associated
  • In addition, to minimize the risks associated with estimated cost errors due to uncertainties of input data, the stochastic input data are considered. (mdpi.com)
  • alternative
  • costs are significant when they are large enough to make a credible difference in the LCC of a project alternative. (wbdg.org)
  • projects
  • A career accountant with more than 15 years of experience, have done costing projects regularly for my clients. (freelancer.com)
  • When making funding decisions of railroad tunnel or any similar projects under constrained budgets, it is tempting (human nature) to emphasize on the up-front costs and pay less importance to the future costs. (railwayage.com)
  • When making funding decisions of tunnel projects under constrained budgets, it is tempting to place a higher importance on up-front costs and pay insignificant attention to future costs. (railwayage.com)
  • Some ongoing tunnel projects are not as successful as they initially appeared in the planning stage because only design and construction costs were included without taking into consideration the long-term costs associated with maintenance, operation, etc. (railwayage.com)
  • health care
  • Medical assistance in dying could reduce annual health care spending across Canada by between $34.7 million and $138.8 million, exceeding the $1.5-$14.8 million in direct costs associated with its implementation. (cmaj.ca)
  • 2 Furthermore, as death approaches, health care costs increase dramatically in the final months. (cmaj.ca)
  • Here, we combine data on the use of medical assistance in dying from countries where it is legal with Canadian-specific end-of-life cost data to estimate the effect of this intervention on health care costs in Canada. (cmaj.ca)
  • We estimated health-care costs from expenditure on care in the primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient settings, and also drugs. (nih.gov)
  • neutral
  • A cost model, at an estimated 50% efficacy for recombinant activated clotting factor VIIa and a 50% expected risk for re-exploration without prophylaxis, demonstrated that to be cost neutral, prophylaxis of four patients needed to result in one avoided re-exploration. (diva-portal.org)
  • Guide
  • Guide to Cost Analysis of Acquisitions and Catalogin g in Libraries. (ala.org)
  • The purpose of the Guide is to aid the user in arriving at a per unit cost for any acquisitions or cataloging function. (ala.org)
  • Using pertinent budget and production statistics, plus the Guide to Cost Analysis of Acquisitions and Cataloging in Libraries table included in the article, the technical processing manager may arrive at a figure. (ala.org)
  • Step-by-step instructions for using the Guide are included, as well as an extensive list of sample variables to be measured in technical services cost studies. (ala.org)
  • Preservation Manager's Guide to Cost Analysis. (ala.org)
  • Regulations
  • However, the nature of potential FDA tobacco regulations suggests that they might impose additional costs on consumers that make it less clear that the net benefits of the regulations will be positive. (cambridge.org)
  • Lung
  • The average cost of a lung biopsy with complications (adverse events) was approximately four times higher than a complication-free biopsy ($37,745 vs. $8,869). (eurekalert.org)
  • illness
  • Additionally, we estimated the costs of unpaid care provided by relatives or friends of patients (ie, informal care), lost earnings after premature death, and costs associated with individuals who temporarily or permanently left employment because of illness. (nih.gov)
  • parameters
  • This result was sensitive to short term dropout rates but robust to changes in other major parameters, including hospitalisation costs and relapse rates. (springer.com)