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  • NASA
  • NASA, which has displayed an unsteady commitment to such exploration, has funded research in how to mitigate radiation risk in haphazard fashion in the past, according to a 2008 National Research Council report . (slate.com)
  • pilots
  • Commercial airline pilots are reported to be at an increased risk for some cancers, but studies on the biological effects of their exposure to cosmic radiation have been limited, according to background information in the article. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Most of us are already aware of the hazards of UV radiation, but as pilots flying at high altitudes we experience greater exposure, so we need to pay even more attention to our own protection, when it comes to both our skin and our eyes. (maxwettsteinfitness.com)
  • Cosmonauts, pilots, cabin crew and frequent fliers who spend extended periods of time at high altitudes and consequently can be exposed to levels of radiation 100-300 times stronger that the levels measured at sea level. (mitochondrialtherapy.com)
  • Airline pilots are exposed to cosmic ionizing radiation, an efficient inducer of chromosome aberrations (CA). Increased CA have been shown to be associated with increased cancer risk. (cdc.gov)
  • To date, most studies of CA among pilots were based on the overall group of CA or unstable CA, and there has been no large study among pilots on translocations which are a better biomarker of cumulative radiation exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • photons
  • This component is redshifted photons that have freely streamed from an epoch when the universe became transparent for the first time to radiation. (blogspot.com)
  • spectrum
  • Most intriguingly, the radiation would be Doppler shifted (by billions of years of universe expansion) from the extreme high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum all the way down to microwave frequencies, the least energetic part of the energy spectrum. (antimatter.ie)
  • In particular, the COBE satellite showed the blackbody spectrum of the radiation in precise detail in 1992, while the WMAP mission gave us priceless information on perturbations in the spectrum in 2006. (antimatter.ie)
  • The origin of this radiation depends on the region of the spectrum that we are observing. (blogspot.com)
  • solar system
  • Yes, in some sense, the cosmic microwave backgrond (CMB) does the provide an absolute cosmological frame, and our solar system is not at rest with respect to this frame. (physicsforums.com)
  • fossil
  • The two young scientists postulated that the universe would become transparent to radiation from this time onwards, and that this radiation might even be observable in today's universe (like a cosmic fossil). (antimatter.ie)
  • residual
  • A second radiometer, tuned to 54 GHz near oxygen emission lines, monitors spurious signals from residual atmospheric radiation. (unt.edu)
  • chronic
  • Recovery of the brain [from] these exposures certainly takes a very long time - so these are very chronic consequences," said study leader Charles Limoli, a neuroscientist and radiation biologist at UC Irvine. (thecosmicview.com)
  • time
  • At this time, radiation left over from the cataclysmic origin of the universe that had been continually scattered by elementary particles would no longer be scattered. (antimatter.ie)
  • Since the time when that radiation was released, the Universe has expanded, becoming at the same time cooler and cooler. (esa.int)
  • researchers
  • The researchers acknowledge these limitations in print, though they don't seem to take their own caveats seriously: "Differences in mouse strain, timing, and radiation beam energy limit our ability to extrapolate from these studies," they write at one point. (slate.com)