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  • limestone
  • Where the bottom is rising, fringing reefs can grow around the coast, but coral raised above sea level dies and becomes white limestone . (wikipedia.org)
  • Harder - Coral is a limestone formation formed in the sea by millions of tiny animals called polyps. (42explore.com)
  • Seawater - increasingly acidic due to global warming - is eating away the limestone framework for coral reef in the upper Florida Keys, according to a new study. (kjrh.com)
  • The northern part of the Florida Keys reef has lost about 12 pounds per square yard (6.5 kilograms per square meter) of limestone over the past six years, according to the study published in the journal Global Biogeochemical Cycles. (kjrh.com)
  • But NOAA's Derek Manzello, a scientist in the ocean acidification program who studied the same area earlier, said it is difficult to blame the foundation loss just on ocean acidification, because long-term coral bleaching and death will also cause the limestone to dissolve. (kjrh.com)
  • There's a natural cycle of limestone production on reefs. (kjrh.com)
  • shallow-water
  • Our work addresses several key issues related to the current status and potential declining health and resilience of shallow-water reef communities in the U.S. Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and Florida Keys. (usgs.gov)
  • Coral reef biomes must exist in shallow water because they must remain between 77 to 84° F. Shallow water is easier to keep warm by the Sun than deeper water. (smore.com)
  • threat
  • They are a larger threat to reef divers than any other shark and are considered to be moderately dangerous to humans. (smore.com)
  • Coral reefs also face a threat posed by an unlikely culprit - cruise ships. (princeton.edu)
  • Extreme Climatic Events and Coral Reefs: How Much Short-Term Threat from Global Change? (springer.com)
  • One popular method of fishing, known as poison fishing, is a major threat to the survival of the coral reef and has been used for centuries. (muohio.edu)
  • survive
  • Symbionts can survive on their own, but corals need that symbiont to survive," he says. (nyu.edu)
  • A study has revealed that most coral reefs will not survive the drastic increases in global temperatures and atmospheric CO2. (medindia.net)
  • zooxanthellae
  • The presence of the zooxanthellae within the tissue of the coral polyp was not discovered until after WWII. (slickrock.com)
  • Zooxanthellae are so numerous that in some instances the biomass of zooxanthellae comprise as much as 80 percent of the total weight of the coral polyps. (slickrock.com)
  • The zooxanthellae photosynthesize organic compounds from sunlight and these compounds are used for food for the coral (Davidson, Osha Gray). (muohio.edu)
  • The coral produce carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a waste product, which serves as a food source for the zooxanthellae. (muohio.edu)
  • This mutualistic relationship will not allow the coral or zooxanthellae to live without each other. (muohio.edu)
  • Coral reefs can be different colors because of the pigments and zooxanthellae tissues. (adobe.com)
  • Once zooxanthellae is gone the coral reefs will its color. (adobe.com)
  • coastal
  • Worldwide, coral is threatened by rising sea temperatures associated with global warming, pollution from coastal soil runoff and sewage, and a number of diseases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Ecosystem-wide study of seafloor erosion, changing coastal water depths, and effects on coastal storm and wave impacts along the Florida Keys Coral Reef Tract in South Florida. (usgs.gov)
  • The consequences of coral loss are potentially devastating: Reefs are a significant source of fish for coastal communities and commercial fishing enterprises, supplying protein for up to a billion people , according to the Coral Reef Alliance. (nyu.edu)
  • Numerous studies predict coral reefs are headed for extinction worldwide, largely because of global warming, pollution and coastal development, but also because of damage from bottom-dragging fishing boats and the international trade in jewelry and souvenirs made of coral. (csmonitor.com)
  • Experts say cutting back on carbon emissions to arrest rising sea temperatures and acidification of the water, declaring some reefs off limits to fishing and diving, and controlling coastal development and pollution could help reverse, or at least stall, the tide. (csmonitor.com)
  • While all of these may affect a reef gradually and chronically, the very fact that these occur in reefs close to sites of onshore and coastal developmental activities and hence subjected to EIA monitoring regulations (in most of the countries), would render it easy to keep track of them. (fao.org)
  • Coral reefs also act as a natural barrier against wave erosion and help protect coastal dwellings, agricultural land, and beaches designed for tourism (Castanza, Robert et al). (muohio.edu)
  • Many coastal communities rely on the coral reefs as fisheries. (muohio.edu)
  • Florida
  • Here you can see spectacular views of coral and their behaviors from marine biologists in Coral Gables, Florida. (42explore.com)
  • In Florida, tropical coral reefs can be found near the keys around each island. (smore.com)
  • There is a famous coral reef in Florida called 'Great Florida Reef' located in the Florida keys. (smore.com)
  • A researcher with the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration surveys a coral reef in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary near Key West, Fla., in this August 2008 file photo. (csmonitor.com)
  • Florida, for instance, has the largest unbroken "no-take" zone in the continental U.S. - about 140 square miles off limits to fishing in and around Dry Tortugas National Park , a cluster of islands and reefs teeming with marine life about 70 miles off Key West . (csmonitor.com)
  • Reefs provide $2.8 billion a year to the Florida economy, mostly from tourists who come to dive and fish but also from commercial fishing, Langdon said. (kjrh.com)
  • marine
  • Though they cover less than one percent of the ocean floor, coral reefs are home to 25 percent of all marine creatures. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Losing them is much more than losing a reef, it means losing fish and marine mammals, even tourism. (innovations-report.com)
  • Reefs are critical to the wellbeing of other marine life, and they protect miles and miles of coastline from storm surge. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Until recently, the significance of marine snow and coral reef health has been neglected. (google.com)
  • This muddy marine snow is detrimental and even lethal to coral reefs as it settles on the reef smothering it (Fabricius and Wolanski 2000). (google.com)
  • 2005). The following footage shows marine snow in high levels in a severely impacted coral reef in Borneo, Malaysia. (google.com)
  • More than a decade later, Soong Ker-yea (宋克義), a professor of marine biology at the university, is continuing the tough tasks of both monitoring the site's ecological systems and attempting recovery work on the coral. (taipeitimes.com)
  • He explained that several problems, including over-fishing, water pollution, poaching of both coral and marine animals in addition to the construction of a causeway nearby had acted together to destroy some of the coral. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Reefs formed by corals are one of the most bio diverse marine areas on the planet. (smore.com)
  • You could argue that a complete collapse of the marine ecosystem would be one of the consequences of losing corals," Carpenter said. (csmonitor.com)
  • Geological Approaches to Coral Reef Ecology will be of particular interest to students and professionals in ecology and marine biology, including environmental managers. (springer.com)
  • Coral reefs are small marine animals that live in one place their entire life. (adobe.com)
  • ecosystem services
  • Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services to tourism, fisheries and shoreline protection . (wikipedia.org)
  • By combining our research activities involving mapping, monitoring, and retrospectively investigating reef processes such as calcification, reef metabolism, and microbial cycling, we will reveal linkages among them and establish connections to ecosystem services or outputs including reef edification, seawater chemistry, sand production, and habitat construction. (usgs.gov)
  • Florida's
  • One way to gain insights into the future trajectories of Florida's coral reefs is to investigate how they responded to environmental disturbances in the past. (usgs.gov)
  • nutrient
  • But in a study published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications, researchers found a second consequence: as fish populations dwindle, coral loses an essential nutrient - fish urine. (csmonitor.com)
  • Fish excrete ammonium, an essential nutrient for coral growth, through their gills. (csmonitor.com)
  • They found that, at sites where predatory fish thrived, the coral reefs had healthy nutrient levels. (csmonitor.com)
  • sunlight
  • This form of pollution, in particular the fine silt fraction of the sediment, directly smothers coral reefs blocking out the sunlight required for photosynthesis (Loya 1976). (google.com)
  • According to McKenna, cruise ship propellers often cause increased seafloor turbidity, resulting in sediment plumes that settle upon nearby coral, decreasing the amount of available sunlight and retarding their growth. (princeton.edu)
  • Yes, too much sediment can block sunlight and prevent coral from maturing. (princeton.edu)
  • A coral skeleton will grow 14 times faster in sunlight than in darkness. (slickrock.com)
  • Ecological
  • Choi DR, (1984) Ecological succession of reef cavity dwellers (Coelobites) in coral rubble. (springer.com)
  • Chapters applying the principles of geophysics, paleontology, geochemistry, and physical and chemical oceanography supply novel insights into the workings of coral reefs, complementing real-time ecological studies and providing critical information for crafting realistic environmental policy. (springer.com)
  • microbial
  • What is clear is that coral disease is accompanied by a microbial bloom, and the DNA array, called the PhyloChip, offers a powerful way to both track this change and shed light on the pathogens that plague one of the ocean's most important denizens. (innovations-report.com)
  • The PhyloChip can help us distinguish different coral diseases based on the microbial community present," says Shinichi Sunagawa, a graduate student in UC Merced's School of Natural Sciences who helped to conduct the research. (innovations-report.com)
  • Understanding these microbial shifts could illuminate the magnitude and causes of coral disease, and possibly how to stop it, which is where the PhyloChip comes in. (innovations-report.com)
  • It's a fast and inexpensive way to conduct a complete microbial community assessment of healthy and diseased corals," says DeSantis. (innovations-report.com)
  • We don't know if the disease-associated microbial population kills the coral, or if the microbes are simply feeding on dead coral tissue. (innovations-report.com)
  • The microbial community on coral reefs is generally underappreciated given the ubiquity, abundance, complexity, and formative role these prokaryotes serve in the metabolic and chemical processes on reefs. (usgs.gov)
  • Ecology
  • The Princeton ecology and evolutionary major conducted fieldwork in Bermuda last summer, where she investigated the ideal conditions for coral growth. (princeton.edu)
  • McKenna (left) and Princeton graduate student in ecology and evolutionary biology Lisa McManus set up equipment to research the effects of varying light and sedimentation conditions on the growth rates of juvenile coral. (princeton.edu)
  • plankton
  • The coral, the fish, the plankton, the whole bloody system is going topsy-turvy. (treehugger.com)
  • The living part of the polyp is composed of small tentacles that move continually, collecting minute plankton to provide the coral animal with food. (slickrock.com)
  • sedimentation
  • The coral animal is able to tolerate acute episodes of sedimentation by secreting mucus as a defense mechanism, helping to keep their surfaces clean. (google.com)
  • To learn more about this delicate balance, McKenna embarked on an 11-week study last summer to research the effects of varying light and sedimentation conditions on the growth rates of juvenile corals at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) in St. George's, Bermuda. (princeton.edu)
  • Carbon
  • Aharon P, Chappell J (1983) Carbon and oxygen isotope probes of reef environment histories. (springer.com)
  • The coral-associated bacterial populations dramatically increase with increased carbon availability, which has been seen to be lethal to the coral (Kline et al. (google.com)
  • This is another one of those cases where we're finding that we're underestimate the level of damage caused by excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere," said National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reef watch coordinator Mark Eakin, who wasn't part of the research. (kjrh.com)
  • The most common time the coral reefs have to worry is when the temperature rises because the carbon dioxide can kill them. (adobe.com)
  • Corals reefs can help us in many different ways, they can clean up recycle carbon dioxide. (adobe.com)
  • calcification
  • Calcification monitoring station with a colony of the massive starlet coral, Siderastrea siderea , fastened in place. (usgs.gov)
  • The components of our project represent multiple disciplines working together to answer one fundamental question: 'what are the drivers determining calcification rates and reef construction, and will reefs cease to accrete (grow) in the near future in the context of ocean warming, ocean acidification, and/or compromised water quality? (usgs.gov)
  • percent of exist
  • Soong said that coral bleaching is a growing problem around the globe, and that up to70 percent of existing coral could actually disappear within 40 years, based on data from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which has been engaged in global coral reef monitoring work for several years. (taipeitimes.com)
  • temperatures
  • Coral in the Arabian Gulf have adapted to temperatures that can top 97 degrees Fahrenheit. (nyu.edu)
  • To try to understand how coral in the Arabian Gulf have adapted to temperatures that can top 36 degrees Celsius (97 degrees Fahrenheit), about 5 degrees hotter than the average temperatures in the Gulf of Oman. (nyu.edu)
  • underwater
  • We realize that coral reefs are being destroyed at an alarming rate, but it's hard for us to know precisely where and how much coral bleaching is happening, because of difficulties monitoring conditions underwater," Soong said. (taipeitimes.com)
  • McKenna took students scuba diving every day, enhancing her underwater skills while increasing her passion for coral protection. (princeton.edu)
  • future of coral
  • Rising global sea levels may actually be beneficial to the long-term future of coral reef islands, such as the Maldives, according to new research published in Geophysical Research Letters. (phys.org)