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  • sensitivity
  • To have confidence that this requirement is being met, it may prove useful to show the document to a number of people of different ages (contrast sensitivity decreases with age) and visual capabilities. (ssa.gov)
  • Sensitivity to phonemic contrasts is important for word learning, and so infants will have to figure out which contrasts are important for their language and which are not. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Campbell and Robson (1968, the human contrast sensitivity function shows a typical band-pass filter shape peaking at around 4 cycles per degree with sensitivity dropping off either side of the peak. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using coarse gratings, the bright bands fall on the inhibitory as well as the excitatory region of the ganglion cell resulting in lateral inhibition and account for the low-frequency drop-off of the human contrast sensitivity function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, ultrasonic imaging using microbubble contrast agents enhances the ultrasound backscatter , (reflection) of the ultrasound waves, to produce a sonogram with increased contrast due to the high echogenicity difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the actual contrast can be reduced. (w3.org)
  • Visual information is always contained in some kind of visual contrast[clarification needed], thus contrast is an essential performance feature of electronic visual displays. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the image content is changing rapidly, e.g. during the display of video or movie content, the optical state of the display may not reach the intended stable steady state because of slow response and thus the apparent contrast is reduced if compared to the static contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative insensitivity of contrast effects to distance (and thus spatial frequency) may also be observed by casual inspection of a paradigmantic sweep grating, as may be observed here The high-frequency cut-off represents the optical limitations of the visual system's ability to resolve detail and is typically about 60 cycles per degree. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the capacitors store a voltage value representing the Y and X locations of any high contrast spot within the image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, if contrast is the subject of an experiment, reward sizes may need to be adjusted to keep the response below such a ceiling. (wikipedia.org)
  • If we multiply each element of the first and second row and add those up, this again results in zero, thus the first and second contrast are orthogonal and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Michelson
  • Michelson contrast (also known as the visibility) is commonly used for patterns where both bright and dark features are equivalent and take up similar fractions of the area (e.g. sine-wave gratings). (wikipedia.org)
  • radiodensity
  • The radiodensity of iodinated contrast is 25-30 Hounsfield units (HU) per milligram of iodine per milliliter at a tube voltage of 100-120 kVp. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The radiodensity of iodinated contrast is 25-30 Hounsfield units (HU) per milligram of iodine per milliliter at a tube voltage of 100-120 kVp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast agents, enhance the radiodensity in a target tissue or structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • In MRI, determining contrast is of high importance for calibration because the operator has a high degree of control of how the signal intensities of various structures vary in the images by using different MRI methods and imaging parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast resolution is usually measured by generating a pattern from a test object that depicts how image contrast changes as the structures being imaged get smaller and closer together. (wikipedia.org)
  • A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • simultaneous
  • Simultaneous contrast identified by Michel Eugène Chevreul refers to the manner in which the colors of two different objects affect each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase the contrast
  • In order to increase the contrast of such LCD-screens the backlight can be (globally) dimmed when the image to be displayed is dark (i.e. not comprising high intensity image data) while the image data is numerically corrected and adapted to the reduced backlight intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are small enough to pass through the capillaries and are used to increase the contrast in the left ventricle, improving the visualization of its walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1950s
  • Linguistic anthropologists Harold Conklin and Charles Frake were the first to work out the concept of the contrast set in the 1950s, and the concept was described in detail in Frake's article "The ethnographic study of cognitive systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • segments
  • In phonology, this is called a phonological gap, and it refers to instances in which a set of related segments containing various contrasts, e.g. between voicing (whether or not the vocal cords vibrate) or aspiration (whether a puff of air is released), is lacking a particular member. (wikipedia.org)
  • In semantics, contrast is a relationship between two discourse segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • describes
  • In literature, an author uses contrast when he or she describes the difference(s) between two or more entities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following table describes three possible contrasts: The first contrast allows to compare the first mean with the second, the second contrast allows to compare the third mean with the fourth, and the third contrast allows to compare the average of the first two means with the average of the last two. (wikipedia.org)
  • image
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used to image blood perfusion in organs, measure blood flow rate in the heart and other organs, and for other applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prototype of the system, which he calls a vein contrast enhancer (VCE), uses a near-infrared camera to capture a real-time video image of the patient's veins, a PC to enhance the contrast of the image and a desktop video projector to display it on the skin in real time (see graphic). (medgadget.com)
  • The image from the camera is fed to a PC running imaging software that maps the image onto a bright green background in real time and boosts the contrast between the veins and surrounding tissue. (medgadget.com)
  • The bright white on the image is the contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also the contrast within one frame can be expanded intentionally depending on the histogram of the image (some sporadic highlights in an image may be cut or suppressed). (wikipedia.org)
  • It first uses some form of automatic gain control to adjust the image brightness until it contains some areas with high-contrast spots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally the recorded spot is indicated on the screen and the pilot can select other high-contrast spots within the image, in an attempt to select one that is either the target or very close to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is very effective against vehicles like tanks, where the engine produces an excellent high-contrast image to seek on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast resolution or contrast-detail is an approach to describing the image quality in terms of both the image contrast and resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast detail curves, which depict the functional relationship between image resolution and contrast resolution, can be produced using this type of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • With DLP projectors, one method to do this is to enable the clear sector of the color filter wheel for the "on" part and disable it for the "off" part This practice is rather dubious, as it will be impossible to reproduce such contrast ratios with any useful image content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another measure is the ANSI contrast, in which the measurement is done with a checker board patterned test image where the black and white luminosity values are measured simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • Behavioral contrast refers to a change in the strength of one response that occurs when the rate of reward of a second response, or of the first response under different conditions, is changed. (wikipedia.org)
  • metric
  • A metric for color contrast often used in the electronic displays field is the color difference ΔE*uv or ΔE*ab. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Iodinated contrast media may either be oil-based or water-soluble, the former of which is slowly absorbed by body tissue and is usually only used in sialographic and hysterosalpingographic examinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • circulation
  • In 1997, I wrote an invited review on myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) entitled "Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography: 15 Years of Research and Development" in the From-Bench-to-Bedside section of Circulation . (ahajournals.org)
  • decreases
  • Osmotic effects of contrast media that are specific for the kidney include transient decreases in blood flow, filtration fraction, and glomerular filtration rate. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Contrast is often overtly marked by markers such as but or however, such as in the following examples: It's raining, but I am not taking an umbrella. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The answer or essay includes at least one specific and substantive example showing how the two cultures are different or disconnected in some sense, as relates to a concept chosen by the student as the point of contrast. (angelfire.com)
  • In music and musical form, contrast is the difference between parts or different instrument sounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case the minimal difference of vowel length is not a contrast in English and so those two forms would be perceived as different pronunciations of the same word seat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various definitions of contrast are used in different situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast fabric is a term used in sewing used to refer to a fabric piece or embellishment made from a different fabric than the main fabric. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast agents absorb or alter external electromagnetism or ultrasound, which is different from radiopharmaceuticals, which emit radiation themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In statistics, particularly in analysis of variance and linear regression, a contrast is a linear combination of variables (parameters or statistics) whose coefficients add up to zero, allowing comparison of different treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • When means are assigned different coefficients (either in magnitude or direction, or both), the contrast is testing for a difference between those means. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Wundt identified contrast as a fundamental principle of perception, and since then the effect has been confirmed in many different areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1976
  • Clarinet Contrast" at Jazz Festival Frankfurt 1976 (video) Festival-article by Ulrich Olshausen in Infoblatt Hessischer Rundfunk, 1976 The clarinet seems to be having a worldwide jazz revival. (wikipedia.org)
  • visual perception
  • In visual perception of the real world, contrast is determined by the difference in the color and brightness of the object and other objects within the same field of view. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • A contrast set is a bounded collection of items, each of which could fill the same slot in a given schema, syntactic structure, or other linguistic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Google Sets program attempts to generate a list of the members of a contrast set given a few starter members. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are potentially infinite sets of orthogonal contrasts, within any given set there will always be a maximum of exactly k - 1 possible orthogonal contrasts (where k is the number of group means available). (wikipedia.org)
  • signal
  • The contrast of electronic visual displays depends on the electrical driving (analog or digital input signal), on the ambient illumination and on the direction of observation (i.e. viewing direction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast seekers should be distinguished from television guidance systems, in which a live television signal is broadcast to the launch platform, which then uses manual direction to attack the target. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • In morphology, 'contrast' is identified, when two linguistic elements occur in the same environment(s), and replacing one with the other creates a difference in meaning. (wikipedia.org)
  • This sort of contrast effect may occur following changes in the amount, frequency, or nature of the reward, and it has been shown to occur with various experimental designs and response measures (e.g. response rate, running speed). (wikipedia.org)
  • requirement
  • For this requirement, contrast is being measured in a subjective manner. (ssa.gov)
  • Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component , that are pure decoration , that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement. (w3.org)
  • Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no contrast requirement. (w3.org)
  • The contrast requirement for larger text is therefore lower. (w3.org)
  • Patients
  • Patients with a history of contrast reactions, however, are at increased risk of anaphylactoid reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients receiving contrast via IV typically experience a hot feeling around the throat, and this hot sensation gradually moves down to the pelvic area. (wikipedia.org)
  • media
  • Contrast media can also be used for tests of the urinary tract, uterus and fallopian tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 14 , 15 ] Radiologists and other physicians must be aware of the risk factors for reactions to contrast media, use strategies to minimize adverse events, and be prepared to promptly recognize and manage any reactions to the contrast media. (medscape.com)
  • content
  • Users with low vision must be able to see the document content when displayed in "High Contrast" mode. (ssa.gov)
  • By focusing student thinking on analyzing pairs of ideas, the Compare & Contrast strategy strengthens students' ability to remember key content. (ascd.org)
  • Content presented in this manner should also have good contrast to ensure that more users can access the information. (w3.org)
  • This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Contrast Rocks" (content from the Geographic Names Information System). (wikipedia.org)
  • difference
  • Users with low vision and color blindness may have difficulty reading documents that do not present sufficient contrast and color difference between background and foreground elements. (ssa.gov)
  • We have, let's say, five points of difference between the two things that we want to contrast. (commnet.edu)
  • On the other hand, an example that is not a phonemic contrast in English is the difference between [sit] and [siːt]. (wikipedia.org)
  • A simple (not necessarily orthogonal) contrast is the difference between two means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that we are not interested in one of these scores by itself, but only in the contrast (in this case - the difference). (wikipedia.org)
  • Table
  • For example, Thai has several sets of stop consonants that differ in terms of voicing and aspiration, yet the language has no voiced velar consonant [ɡ], as shown in the table of Thai stop contrasts below. (wikipedia.org)
  • depends
  • For example, in the case of graphical computer displays, contrast depends on the properties of the picture source or file and the properties of the computer display, including its variable settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • threshold
  • When the trigger is pressed to pickle the target, the contrast threshold circuits are turned on when the camera is scanning locations close to the pickled location on the screen. (wikipedia.org)
  • negative
  • A disadvantage of this definition is that the contrast C can be negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, increasing the reward to green tends to reduce the response rate to red (negative contrast). (wikipedia.org)
  • Crespi originally called these effects depression and elation respectively, but, in 1949, Zeaman suggested changing the names to negative contrast and positive contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assimilation and contrast effects Chubb illusion Less-is-better effect and distinction bias Negative (Positive) contrast effect List of cognitive biases Colour, Why the World Isn't Grey, Hazel Rossotti, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1985, pp. 135-136. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Shortly after infusion, the warmed contrast medium moves through peripheral areas of the body, which are cooler than the core temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • below
  • The picture below shows one such set of images produced using the low contrast detectability inserts of the phantom employed in the MRI accreditation program of the American College of Radiology. (wikipedia.org)