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  • LTBI
  • LTBI was diagnosed in 24.1% of contacts tested with TST while active TB was diagnosed in 2.1% of contacts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among 57 close contacts of 16 sputum smear-positive TB cases, the elicitation, evaluation, initiation of LTBI treatment and completion rates were 93%, 86%, 14% and 100%, and among 114 close contacts of 37 sputum smear-negative pulmonary TB cases 81%, 83%, 16% and 89%, respectively. (bmj.com)
  • Apart from young children, LTBI treatment was inconsistently initiated in household TB contacts. (bmj.com)
  • 2 3 Both the 'End TB Strategy' and the 'Low-incidence country action framework' highlight contact tracing and LTBI treatment as key steps towards ending the TB epidemic. (bmj.com)
  • findings
  • Our findings provide strong evidence for the effectiveness of combining contact tracing with residual spraying within a developed urban center, and should be directly applicable to areas with similar characteristics (for example, southern USA, Europe, or Caribbean countries) that need to control localized Aedes -borne virus transmission or to protect pregnant women's homes in areas with active Zika transmission. (sciencemag.org)
  • In light of the findings, we recommend the CI be considered as an alternative to the typical contact tracing interview, particularly if the interviewee is not cognitively impaired. (fiu.edu)
  • effectiveness
  • Vaccination and Clinical Severity: Is the Effectiveness of Contact Tracing and Case Isolation Hampered by Past Vaccination? (mdpi.com)
  • While contact tracing and case isolation are considered as the first choice of interventions against a smallpox bioterrorist event, their effectiveness under vaccination is questioned, because not only susceptibility of host and infectiousness of case but also the risk of severe clinical manifestations among cases is known to be reduced by vaccine-induced immunity, thereby potentially delaying the diagnosis and increasing mobility among vaccinated cases. (mdpi.com)
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of screening contacts of adult ETB cases and adult pulmonary or laryngeal TB (PTB) cases in London, UK. (bmj.com)
  • identify
  • We identified address and postcode data from hospital and community-based testing requests (excluding anonymised GUM data) to identify those individuals who had undergone household contact-testing for HBV. (bmj.com)
  • Although there are data-deficits to using recorded laboratory data, it provides a readily available and reproducible format to identify and monitor regional contact-testing practice. (bmj.com)
  • To the participants, she further admonished them to spread the knowledge they acquired, because it was intended to them to identify people in their respective communities, who comes in direct contact with the sick. (liberianobserver.com)
  • We employed a multi-type stochastic epidemic model, aiming to assess the feasibility of contact tracing and case isolation in a partially vaccinated population and identify data gaps. (mdpi.com)
  • Our aim is to assess factors associated with the degree of compliance with the main recommendations made to contacts of TB cases as part of the contact tracing programme, and to identify factors associated with non‐compliance. (ua.es)
  • A report is provided of a contact investigation conducted in rural South Carolina to identify, counsel, and educate men infected with or exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (georgetown.edu)
  • pulmonary
  • Background In January 2016, clinical TB guidance in the UK changed to no longer recommend screening contacts of non-pulmonary, non-laryngeal (ETB) index cases. (bmj.com)
  • assess
  • We collected laboratory data from the past 10 years on all Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), and Core Antibody (total HBcAb) testing requests, to assess the uptake and efficacy of contact-tracing amongst those with HBV. (bmj.com)
  • occur
  • We established a 5-year contact-tracing study in northwest Tanzania to investigate risk factors associated with rabies exposure and to determine why human deaths from canine rabies still occur. (plos.org)
  • Spread may also occur from contact with items recently contaminated with bodily fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • A contact tracing team identified cases, conducted home visits, symptom-screened contacts and referred those with ≥1 TB symptoms. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • All adult TB cases (≥15 years old) in London from 2012 to 2015, and their contacts, were eligible (2465/5084 PTB and 2559/6090 ETB index cases were included). (bmj.com)
  • Results Assuming each contact with PTB infects one person/month, the ICER of screening contacts of ETB cases was £78 000/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) (95% CI 39 000 to 140 000), and screening contacts of PTB cases was £30 000/QALY (95% CI 18 000 to 50 000). (bmj.com)
  • The ICER of screening contacts of ETB cases was £30 000/QALY if each contact with PTB infects 3.4 people/month. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Screening contacts of ETB cases in London was almost certainly not cost-effective at any conventional willingness-to-pay threshold in England, supporting recent changes to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence national guidelines. (bmj.com)
  • Bomi County surprises me though, because it has just 85 cumulative confirmed, suspected and probable cases, and a cumulative total of 357 contacts. (caitlinrivers.com)
  • These 398 'index cases' reported a total of 1,403 contactable sexual contacts, of whom 320 (22.8%) received HIV testing and 125 (39.1%) tested positive for HIV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • symptoms
  • Sierra Leone is the only country reporting on the number of contacts traced that develop symptoms, but the numbers are telling. (caitlinrivers.com)
  • It's critical that each contact be monitored closely, so that they can be isolated as soon as symptoms first appear. (caitlinrivers.com)
  • spread
  • Our traditional method of control, contact-tracing, was seen to be most effective in the spread network in heterosexuals," the researchers concluded. (thebody.com)
  • Contagious diseases often spread from farm to farm in a sequential way and in contact tracing, both backwards and forward tracing is important, i.e. identifying farms from which infected animals may have come, and identifying farms which may have received infected animals. (beds.ac.uk)
  • If contact-tracing fixators appreciating polypectomy spread. (rusf.ru)
  • Patients
  • 54 HBV positive patients shared the same address (26 households, range 2-3/household), with an additional 203 negative HBsAg requests made in the remaining household contacts, with HBcAb evident in 18% of these individuals. (bmj.com)
  • Consecutive patients (n=192) answered a questionnaire about sexual behaviour and contact tracing. (diva-portal.org)
  • RESULTS
  • Results suggested that the CI generated 35% more total contacts listed, however, when examining only the contacts listed who would be at a high risk of meningococcal meningitis there was no significant difference between the CI and the standard interview. (fiu.edu)
  • Results clearly demonstrated a superiority of the CI in generating both more total contacts and more contacts at a risk of meningococcal meningitis than the standard interview. (fiu.edu)
  • Liberia
  • Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia combined have accumulated well over 30,000 contacts, each of which needs to be followed daily for 21 days. (caitlinrivers.com)
  • Several counties in Liberia are still without vehicles for contact tracing, and I assume the situation is similar in SL and Guinea. (caitlinrivers.com)
  • When we compare the total number of contacts currently under follow up to the total number of contacts seen in the last 24 hours, we see both Sierra Leone and Liberia seem to be doing well keeping up with the increasing demand. (caitlinrivers.com)
  • Not to undermine the important whys and hows of contact tracing, but I'm sure you're interpreting an imagined world in Liberia. (caitlinrivers.com)
  • study
  • In Study One, participants imagined they were infected with meningococcal meningitis, and reported every person with whom they had physical contact, shared saliva, or lived with over the previous three days (i.e., at a high risk for developing meningococcal meningitis). (fiu.edu)
  • However
  • However, the expectation and responsibility for contact tracing in chronic HBV lies predominately with primary care, with no formal implementation strategy or monitoring system in place. (bmj.com)
  • However, no new evidence was cited for this change, and there is evidence that screening these contacts may be worthwhile. (bmj.com)
  • However, when the working memory impairment task was completed, the CI generated no more contacts than the standard interview. (fiu.edu)
  • high
  • Given the high stakes, the most exhaustive list of potentially infected contacts must be reported. (fiu.edu)
  • Search
  • The time-frames for backward and forward tracing can be specified independently and search can be done on one farm at a time or for all farms within the dataset. (beds.ac.uk)
  • disease control
  • datasets with network measures, contacts visualised in a map and automatically generated reports for each farm either in HTML or PDF-format intended for the end-users, i.e. the veterinary authorities, regional disease control officers and field-veterinarians. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We believe this tool can help in disease control since it rapidly can structure essential contact information from large datasets. (beds.ac.uk)
  • recent
  • The GP explains to Frank that most causes of urethral discharge are sexually transmitted and asks him about his recent sexual contacts. (racgp.org.au)
  • referral
  • Frank has a name and a contact method (mobile number or email address) for all three and accepts the offer of provider referral for the woman from Bangkok. (racgp.org.au)
  • Interview
  • Interview all identified contacts to evaluate need for PH follow-up 3. (studylib.net)
  • Participants completed (or did not complete) a working memory impairment task (pressed a spacebar on a keyboard every time 7 seconds passed) while reporting their physical contacts during either a CI or a standard interview. (fiu.edu)