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  • chromosome
  • Drs. Peter Nowell and David Hungerford, two Philadelphia researchers, were experimenting with cells from various types of leukemia when one noticed a smaller-than-normal chromosome number 22 on the cancer cells of two individuals with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). (oncolink.org)
  • In May of 2001, imatinib was approved by the FDA for the initial therapy for CML and later, Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)- positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), by targeting the bcr-ablprotein, preventing further development of leukemia cells. (oncolink.org)
  • cells
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the blood, where abnormally high numbers of ineffective white blood cells known as "blast cells" accumulate in the circulation and limit normal blood cell production. (oncolink.org)
  • residues
  • Critical residues involved in the SH2-kinase domain interface that are discussed in the text are highlighted. (nih.gov)
  • vitro
  • An engineered Abl SH2-binding fibronectin type III monobody inhibited Bcr-Abl kinase activity both in vitro and in primary CML cells, where it induced apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • clinical
  • Major Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) chemotherapy clinical trials have consistently shown that chemotherapy produces significantly better disease-free and overall survival in patients with ER-negative disease. (medscape.com)
  • cancer
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the blood, where abnormally high numbers of ineffective white blood cells known as "blast cells" accumulate in the circulation and limit normal blood cell production. (oncolink.org)
  • STAT5 has been found to be constitutively phosphorylated in cancer cells, implying that the protein is always present in its active form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) are unlikely to achieve a pCR from currently available chemotherapy. (medscape.com)
  • ligand
  • In the activation pathway illustrated to the left, the ligand involved is a cytokine and the specific kinase taking part in activation is JAK. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The interactions between these and other factors involve complex regulatory interactions, including both negative and positive feedback loops. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, alternative strategies targeting regulatory modules of Bcr-Abl in addition to the kinase active site are strongly desirable. (nih.gov)
  • HER2
  • The best candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy are patients with ER-negative or HER2-positive expressing tumors whose pathologically complete response (pCR) rates are generally above 20% and predict long-term survival. (medscape.com)