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  • mechanisms
  • The understanding of the fundamentals of the structure-and-function of MGEs allowed us to adapt these mechanisms to serve our needs, in the form of genetic engineering technology, in a number of applications in science, biotechnology, and everyday life. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exchange
  • Gene transfer and genetic exchange have been studied in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium volcanii and the hyperthermophilic archaeons Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ciliates, cell fission may follow self-fertilization (autogamy), or it may follow conjugation (exchange of nuclei). (wikipedia.org)
  • MGEs
  • At the heart of the HGT-driven bacterial evolution and adaptation are highly sophisticated natural genetic engineering tools in the form of a variety of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are a type of genetic materials that can move around within a genome, or that can be transferred from one species or replicon to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • In this chapter we will discuss in detail HGT mediated by conjugation in mycobacteria, its potential evolutionary impact, and its application as a tool for mycobacterial genetics. (asmscience.org)
  • Microbial genetics is a subject area within microbiology and genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Many other scientists had tried to demonstrate conjugation and had failed. (springer.com)
  • Some scientists have been drawing attention to this possibility recently [ 2 ] , but the warnings actually date back to the mid-1970s when genetic engineering began. (ratical.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Some have suggested that eukaryotes arose through fusion of an archaean and eubacterium, which became the nucleus and cytoplasm, which accounts for various genetic similarities but runs into difficulties explaining cell structure. (wikibooks.org)
  • organism
  • male gametes are small, motile, and optimized to transport their genetic information over a distance, while female gametes are large, non-motile and contain the nutrients necessary for the early development of the young organism. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • genomes
  • Genetic engineering involves designing artificial constructs to cross species barriers and to invade genomes. (ratical.org)
  • 1944
  • In 1944 this "transforming principle" was identified as being genetic by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty. (wikipedia.org)