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  • Obesity
  • OBJECTIVE: Here we assess the association between these health outcomes and exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as part of a broader effort to develop a research agenda to better understand the role of environmental chemicals as potential risk factors for obesity and metabolic disorders. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: From a toxicological perspective, the linkages between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight/obesity provide proof-of-concept of how early-life exposure to an environmental toxicant can be a risk factor for childhood obesity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The obesity paradox is a medical hypothesis which holds that obesity (and high cholesterol, when the more global term reverse epidemiology is used) may, counterintuitively, be protective and associated with greater survival in certain groups of people, such as very elderly individuals or those with certain chronic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • These are G-protein-coupled membrane-bound receptors and play a role in signal transduction through modulation of adenylate cyclase, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and members of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). (acc.org)
  • The mechanism responsible for this reversed association is unknown, but it has been suggested that, in chronic kidney disease patients, "The common occurrence of persistent inflammation and protein energy wasting in advanced CKD [chronic kidney disease] seems to a large extent to account for this paradoxical association between traditional risk factors and CV outcomes in this patient population. (wikipedia.org)
  • reverse
  • The terminology reverse epidemiology was first proposed by Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh in the journal Kidney International in 2003 and in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • coronary
  • 12 The same group of investigators showed that CB 2 receptor agonists JWH-133 and HU-30 decreased tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-induced proliferation and migration of coronary smooth muscle cells. (acc.org)
  • During his time in Buffalo, Winkelstein studied the health impact of the city's air pollution, successfully separating the effect of pollution from other confounding social and environmental factors, and also contributed greatly to the understanding of coronary artery disease in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variables
  • Further, lacing and other chemicals present in marijuana are major confounding variables that may contribute to the untoward effects of marijuana. (acc.org)
  • To estimate the effect of X on Y, the statistician must suppress the effects of extraneous variables that influence both X and Y. We say that, X and Y are confounded by some other variable Z whenever Z is a cause of both X and Y. Let P ( y ∣ do ( x ) ) {\displaystyle P(y\mid {\text{do}}(x))} be the probability of event Y = y under the hypothetical intervention X = x. (wikipedia.org)
  • Child
  • Only 28 countries, representing 449 million people (seven percent of the world's population), have adequate laws that address all five risk factors (speed, drunk driving, helmets, seat-belts and child restraints). (wikipedia.org)
  • regard
  • The potential relationship of a suspected risk factor or an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing the diseased and nondiseased subjects with regard to how frequently the factor or attribute is present (or, if quantitative, the levels of the attribute) in each of the groups (diseased and nondiseased). (wikipedia.org)
  • Results
  • RESULTS: Sociodemographic factors and social support reported upon entry into the cardiac rehabilitation program were related to initial and post-cardiac rehabilitation exercise tolerance, after controlling for admitting diagnoses, medical history, smoking, and perceived severity of illness. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results support the potential use of broad social factors in examining the determinants of prognostic factors for heart patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • study
  • Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution[disambiguation needed] and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "epidemiology" appears to have first been used to describe the study of epidemics in 1802 by the Spanish physician Villalba in Epidemiología Española. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Vandenbroucke (2004) it was Kish who used the word "confounding" in the modern sense of the word, to mean "incomparability" of two or more groups (e.g., exposed and unexposed) in an observational study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Menopause, the biological impact of a surgical procedure with anesthesia, medications prescribed in addition to the chemotherapy, genetic predisposition, hormone therapy, emotional states (including anxiety, depression and fatigue), comorbid conditions and paraneoplastic syndrome may all co-occur and act as confounding factors in the study or experience of PCCI. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major
  • Since retiring and assuming emeritus status, Winkelstein worked on biographical sketches of major figures in the history of epidemiology, including John Snow, Edward Jenner, and his mentor, Abraham Lilienfeld. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • By studying this cohort, Winkelstein and his collaborators were able to contribute greatly to the understanding of the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS, in particular the modes of viral transmission, risk factors for progression to AIDS, and duration of the incubation period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public Health
  • It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • Ecologic analyses may avoid confounding that would be present in analysis at the individual level because variations in regional or hospital practice may be unrelated to prognosis. (oup.com)
  • inflammatory
  • CB 2 receptor agonists attenuate inflammatory response to tumor necrosis factor alpha and decrease expression of cell adhesion molecules, which are key steps in atherogenesis. (acc.org)
  • cannot
  • Confounding is a causal concept, and as such, cannot be described in terms of correlations or associations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comparison between left-handed and right-handed traffic cannot be done without taking into account a variety of confounding factors such as the degree of compliance with traffic regulations, the level of policing, GDP per capita, the median/mode of the age of cars and many more. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Therefore, this epidemiology is based upon how the pattern of the disease cause changes in the function of everyone. (wikipedia.org)
  • An etiological agent of disease may require an independent co-factor, and be subject to a promoter (increases expression) to cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • HCC mostly occurs in people with cirrhosis of the liver, and so risk factors generally include factors which cause chronic liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • University
  • He was trained in medicine and community medicine at the University of Toronto, in family medicine at McMaster University, and in epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiologic Reviews, Volume 22(1), Epidemiology in the Year 2000 and Beyond, The Johns Hopkins University. (wikipedia.org)
  • upon
  • X and Y are not confounded if and only if the following holds: for all values X = x and Y = y, where P ( y ∣ x ) {\displaystyle P(y\mid x)} is the conditional probability upon seeing X = x. (wikipedia.org)
  • concept
  • Wu Youke (1582-1652) developed the concept that some diseases were caused by transmissible agents, which he called liqi (pestilential factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Clearly the statistician desires the unbiased estimate P ( y ∣ d o ( x ) ) {\displaystyle P(y\mid do(x))} , but in cases where only observational data are available, an unbiased estimate can only be obtained by "adjusting" for all confounding factors, namely, conditioning on their various values and averaging the result. (wikipedia.org)
  • book
  • Fisher used the word "confounding" in his 1935 book "The Design of Experiments" to denote any source of error in his ideal of randomized experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • Also, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which causes proliferation and growth of VSMC, also contributes in atherosclerosis. (acc.org)
  • lung
  • Richard Doll, a prominent scientist who conducted the British Doctors Study with Austin Bradford Hill in 1951, theorized that smoking was not considered an obvious factor because everyone participated in it, yet not everyone developed lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists believed many other factors were responsible for the development of lung cancer, such as exhaus, coal fumes, infectious diseases, race, and better diagnostic technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these findings were presented at the American Cancer Society 1949 national meeting, the lack of audience response reflected a dismissal of smoking as a causal factor for lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dominant themes were lung and breast cancer, but there were also in-depth studies of the epidemiology of cancer of the bladder, larynx, colon and rectum, stomach, ovary, prostate, pancreas, and kidney, as well as numerous experimental studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco Public health Epidemiology Cigarette Nicotine Lung cancer Evarts Ambrose Graham Washington University in St. Louis The New York Times Biographical Service. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Risk factors for sickness absence have been assessed in studies, but it remains aspects to be investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other studies have found age-dependent mortality risks of low-to-moderate alcohol use: an increased risk for individuals aged 16-34 (due to increased risk of cancers, accidents, liver disease, and other factors), but a decreased risk for individuals ages 55+ (due to lower incidence of ischemic heart disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • These findings and methods are essential to both our understanding of the mechanisms that drive contagions in networks and our knowledge of how to propagate or combat them in domains as diverse as epidemiology, marketing, development economics, and public health. (pnas.org)
  • stress
  • However, avoidance behavior and psychological stress due to use of a shock apparatus can interfere with quantitation of running endurance, as well as confound measurements of postexercise serum hormone and cytokine levels. (jove.com)
  • This method is a humane refinement which also decreases the confounding effects of stress on experimental parameters. (jove.com)
  • Stress can also be a contributing factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • Among these are factors in working life and in family life, which are of special interest when investigating sickness absence in women. (biomedcentral.com)
  • among the delivery fast cialis buy cheap formulations of factor envelope, drugs of the particular nature, drug of support, bubbles, etc. recent increase forms may afterwards be comprehensive also not as -la today. (fsblog.de)
  • health
  • Barriers generated by factors relating to both supply and demand may still prevent access, thereby bringing about an exacerbation of existing inequalities in health. (beds.ac.uk)
  • medical
  • We used the active duty US military, a unique healthy worker population with essentially complete medical diagnostic coding, as an opportunity to describe trends in CD and deployment-related risk factors. (celiac.org)
  • Incidence and duration of CD-related medical care were estimated, and conditional logistic regression was utilized to evaluate CD risk following infectious gastroenteritis (IGE) occurring within 3 years before CD diagnosis while controlling for other risk factors. (celiac.org)
  • blood
  • measles epidemiology HIV epidemiology, the geographic clustering of childhood leukemia blood flow heterogeneity the genomic distributions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) gene structures in number theory with sequential values of the Mertens function from the eigenvalue deviations of Gaussian orthogonal and unitary ensembles of random matrix theory The first use of a double log-log plot was by Reynolds in 1879 on thermal aerodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • Risk factors are similar to those of sexually transmitted infections generally and include a high number of sexual partners and drug use. (wikipedia.org)
  • knowing that a drug works (in medicine) is entirely different from knowing that a teaching method works, for the latter will depend on a host of factors, not least those to do with the style, personality and beliefs of the teacher and the needs of the particular children (Hammersley 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • associations
  • Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • contribute
  • By studying this cohort, Winkelstein and his collaborators were able to contribute greatly to the understanding of the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS, in particular the modes of viral transmission, risk factors for progression to AIDS, and duration of the incubation period. (wikipedia.org)