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  • extinction
  • The basic hypothesis of the study was that provided arousal factors were controlled, focusing of attention upon internal stimulation (i.e. breathing) could delay or attenuate the affect of conditioning, habituation and extinction as compared with instructions to externally allocate attention (on the CS and US). (unt.edu)
  • A secondary hypothesis predicted that for subjects under switching conditions changing from internal to external allocation and vice versa would produce a more pronounced extinction pattern as compared with subjects under non-switching conditions. (unt.edu)
  • Observations of complex spike firing in the Purkinje cells during conditioning and extinction confirm this prediction. (springer.com)
  • Extinction in classical conditioning results if there is a decrease in frequency or strength of a learned response due to the failure to continue to pair the US and the CS. (atlants.lv)
  • acquisition
  • We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in learners, and the high stability of the CR during consecutive training and memory retention trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found a strong relationship between the level of conditioning and Purkinje cell dendritic membrane excitability after initial acquisition of the conditioned response. (jneurosci.org)
  • Immediately following acquisition, one group received RP (blocking) in the shuttle box (Condition A-B). This consisted of placing a door between the two sides of the box and presenting the 85 dB (A) white noise CS for 15 20-sec periods with a variable 1-min interstimulus interval. (biomedsearch.com)
  • startle
  • In the first experiment, electroencephalogram was recorded from 24 undergraduate students ( M = 21.07 years, SD = 3.38 years) under the following conditions: (i) CS+/aversive imagery, (ii) CS+/aversive imagery and acoustic startle, (iii) CS+/acoustic startle, and (iv) CS+/pleasant imagery. (edu.au)
  • The amplitude of the N170 was enhanced following conditioning with aversive imagery as well as acoustic startle. (edu.au)
  • rabbits
  • In slices of lobule HVI obtained from naive rabbits, the conditioning-related increases in membrane excitability could be mimicked by application of potassium channel antagonist tetraethylammonium chloride, iberiotoxin, or 4-aminopyridine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pavlov
  • Thorndike began his studies as a young research student, at about the time that Pavlov-already 50 years old and with an eminent body of research behind him-was starting his work on classical conditioning . (britannica.com)
  • associative
  • Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. (frontiersin.org)
  • Appetitive associative learning can also be studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory by conditioning the proboscis extension response (PER) of individually harnessed honeybees 3,4 . (jove.com)
  • Conditioning and associative learning--along with owner or practitioner expectation and self-deception--might explain why some animals appear to get relief from reiki , homeopathy , or acupuncture . (blogspot.com)
  • amplitude
  • Although dendritically recorded membrane potential, input resistance, and amplitude of somatic and dendritic spikes were not different in cells from paired or control animals, the size of a potassium channel-mediated transient hyperpolarization was significantly smaller in cells from animals that received classical conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • N170 amplitude at P7 was increased for the CS+/aversive condition in comparison to CS- in the conditioning blocks versus baseline. (edu.au)
  • behaviors
  • Thereafter, the mere mention of a tuna sandwich would send Brian scurrying to the bathroom with a rolling stomach (You must identify the 4 elements of classical conditioning for credit) What behaviors in this scenario are the ucr, ucs, cr, and cs? (coursehero.com)
  • anxiety
  • Anxiety is the most commonly treated and prescribed for psychiatric condition in today's society. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clinical experience reveals that patients may have other mental problems as well, such as substance abuse disorders, personality disorders and anxiety disorders, which as comorbdid conditions, further exacerbate the degree of the SAD patient's symptoms. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • placebo
  • 131). When conditioning is combined with desire and motivation for relief, the placebo effect is boosted for both active and inert substances. (blogspot.com)
  • spontaneous
  • Before training, complex spikes are unaffected or facilitated by the conditioned stimulus, but as the simple spike pause response develops, spontaneous and stimulus-evoked complex spikes are also strongly suppressed by the conditioned stimulus. (springer.com)
  • Another factor that is involved in conditioning is spontaneous recovery. (atlants.lv)
  • neurons
  • Furthermore, most of the theoretical models proposed for classical conditioning have focused on individual neurons or synapses by assuming the presence of slowly decaying firing activity of neurons. (frontiersin.org)