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  • limb
  • Finally, in the third phase, the blastema grows in a proximodistal direction, regenerating the missing limb. (jcancer.org)
  • Furthermore, targeting specific cell types will be necessary to understand how regeneration of the diverse tissues within the limb is accomplished. (biologists.org)
  • Interestingly, its expression is conserved (to the posterior side of limb buds and blastemas) in axolotl limbs as in other tetrapods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of the restricted expression of Shh to the posterior margin, it remains unclear, however, whether Shh induces the limb polarity directly or through a secondary signal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • plasticity
  • Somatic cells that change from one mature phenotype to another exhibit the property of plasticity. (jci.org)
  • As we discuss in this Personal Perspective, we believe that context and various changes in plasticity biomarkers can help identify at least three types of EMT and that using a collection of criteria for EMT increases the likelihood that everyone is studying the same phenomenon - namely, the transition of epithelial and endothelial cells to a motile phenotype. (jci.org)
  • stem cell
  • A second, regeneration-specific, localized proliferation response that reaches its peak after 2 days of regeneration generates stem cell progeny that contribute to the growth of the blastema. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nowadays they are an emerging model system in the field of developmental, regenerative, and stem cell biology. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings provide insights into the complex interconnections among cell proliferation, homeostasis, and cell death in planarians and perspectives for the understanding of neoblast stem cell dynamics. (pnas.org)
  • Planarian tissues contain several differentiated nonproliferating cell types and only one mitotically active cell type called the neoblast, which is believed to be a somatic stem cell. (pnas.org)
  • stem cell populations stop doing their jobs as enthusiastically , for example, and the quality of our tissues suffers for it. (fightaging.org)
  • Try to do something different and your path will be longer and more challenging - see, for example, the fact that early stage stem cell therapies still cannot be obtained in US clinics, despite having been available overseas for a number of years now. (fightaging.org)
  • In addition, Ct-piwi1 is expressed in a population of putative PGCs that persist in sexually mature adults, likely in a stem cell niche. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is likely that piwi genes, and associated stem cell co-regulators, became restricted to the germline in some taxa during the course of evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • axolotl
  • These viruses, when modified by changing their coat protein, can infect axolotl cells only when they have been experimentally manipulated to express the receptor for that coat protein, thus allowing for the possibility of targeting specific cell types. (biologists.org)
  • We have found that pseudotyped Maloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MMLV) retroviruses can very efficiently infect axolotl cells in vitro and in vivo , and can be used for both lineage and functional analyses in regenerating limbs. (biologists.org)
  • When these retroviruses are pseudotyped with ASLV-A envelope glycoprotein that mediates infection specifically through the avian TVA receptor, they are capable of infecting only axolotl cells that have been made to express the receptor. (biologists.org)
  • distinct
  • Regarding vibrational spectroscopy analysis by FTIR, bands related with biomolecules were shown on mPSCs and DKCs spectra, observing distinct differences between cell lineages and maturation stages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that the blastema consists of two components with markedly distinct proliferation properties. (biologists.org)
  • receptor
  • Viral gene transfer is an attractive alternative, as it can provide stable gene expression and can, in principle, be targeted to specific cell types based on the availability of a receptor. (biologists.org)
  • Little is known of the acute scrotum is formed by a thyroglobulin (tg)-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes normal mammary epithelial cells expressing il-3 receptor alpha-chains (cd24). (arrowheadpharma.com)
  • Bladder
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of induced matrix of New Zealand rabbit bladder on the blastema cells in vitro . (zjrms.com)
  • Some denitions may be separated bluntly, as in animal cells, and 20-40% inorganic material, such as vesicular lesions of face and shaft skin has reached an advanced or metastatic bladder cancer. (arrowheadpharma.com)
  • Incise the perineum, the pubic bone, thus defining the t cell growth and angiogenesis during the course of ckd portends a poor prognosis, based on correlation with the bladder. (arrowheadpharma.com)
  • renal
  • As a matter of opinion that all infants and neonatal subjects maintain a high dependency or intensive care unit cardiac output which raises blood flow rates require specific therapy can aggravate renal failure is accompanied by antibasement membrane antibodies and cells. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • progeny
  • Together with their immediate progeny, neoblasts account for ≈15-25% of all parenchymal cells ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • unclear
  • Moreover, it remains unclear how energy and resources are made available to dividing cells even during starvation. (pnas.org)
  • vertebrate
  • We determined that planarian and vertebrate excretory cells express homologous proteins involved in reabsorption and waste modification. (biologists.org)
  • limbs
  • In amphibians this process is regulated by nerve fibres present at the site of injury, which have been proposed to release factors into the amputated limbs/fins, promoting and sustaining the proliferation of blastemal cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • processes
  • We therefore propose a link between partially reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells and the half way state of blastema cells and suggest that a common mechanism might be regulating these two processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, these cells are of great interest for the study of these processes. (jcancer.org)
  • In order to achieve unfettered growth all cancers must bypass this limit by continually lengthening their telomeres, a goal that is achieved through mutations that allow cancer cells to use telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) processes. (fightaging.org)
  • The gene functions at the interface between survival and cell death during stress-inducing processes like regeneration and starvation in sexual and asexual races of planarians. (pnas.org)
  • By analogy to other organisms, apoptosis has been thought to be the mechanism by which cell number is reduced during the remodeling processes associated with the continuous adaptation of the animal to new body sizes during starvation. (pnas.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Histological analysis indicated that the loss due to BMP-2 overexpression was the result of increased cell condensation and apoptosis while the loss caused by Noggin was due to a decrease in cell division. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes
  • Given the key role of the interaction of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene, GDNF , and the "rearranged during transfection" proto-oncogene, RET , in kidney and urinary tract development, variations in these genes are proposed to be candidates for medullary sponge kidney. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified at least five different temporal synexpression classes, including genes specifically induced within a few hours after injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In C. teleta, piwi genes may have retained an ancestral role as genetic regulators of both somatic and germline stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Are core regulatory genes shared between multipotent stem cells and germline stem cells in some animal groups? (biomedcentral.com)
  • crucial
  • It is crucial, therefore, to understand the molecular mechanisms of regeneration and the intrinsic and extrinsic signals that induce and promote this process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, very few molecular tools exist for studying crucial cell lineage relationships over regeneration or for robust and sustained misexpression of genetic elements to test their function. (biologists.org)
  • stages
  • Ct-piwi1 and Ct-piwi2 are expressed throughout the life cycle in a dynamic pattern that includes both somatic and germline cells, and show nearly identical expression patterns at all stages examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • germ cells
  • Few germ cells are present in females that are hemizygous for strong alleles and OSK transcript is not detectable (Webster, 1997). (sdbonline.org)
  • According to the preformationist mode, germ cells are specified by maternally inherited determinants present within the egg. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In some basally branching animals, there is not such a separation between the germline and the soma in the embryo, and germ cells can be segregated from somatic cells throughout the life cycle. (biomedcentral.com)