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  • enforcement
  • Despite the mandate that these obligations be enforced equally, the dominant paradigm enshrined in the drug conventions is an enforcement-heavy criminal justice response to controlled substances that prohibits and penalizes their misuse. (hhrjournal.org)
  • Despite the mandate that these two obligations be enforced equally, the dominant paradigm-in both the text of the drug conventions and their implementation-is an enforcement-heavy criminal justice response to controlled substances that centers on preventing what is deemed in law to be their misuse. (hhrjournal.org)
  • efforts
  • This paper argues that the drug conventions' prioritization of criminal justice measures-including efforts to prevent non-medical use of controlled substances-undermines access to medicines and infringes upon the right to health and the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress. (hhrjournal.org)
  • Laws
  • Drug conventions serve as the cornerstone for domestic drug laws and impose a dual obligation upon states to prevent the misuse of controlled substances while ensuring their adequate availability for medical and scientific purposes. (hhrjournal.org)
  • impose
  • The international drug control conventions (hereinafter "the drug conventions") impose varying levels of control on a range of substances based, in theory, on their perceived risk of misuse and medicinal value. (hhrjournal.org)
  • drugs
  • 4 On several occasions, however, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) rejected the recommendation of the WHO Expert Committee, particularly when it comes to recognizing the potential therapeutic benefits of certain cannabinoids that are controlled (as is discussed below). (hhrjournal.org)
  • cannabis
  • Independent addiction experts and clinicians repeatedly assert that some controlled substances, including cannabis and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), are wrongly placed in the drug conventions' most restrictive schedules. (hhrjournal.org)
  • medicines
  • Prioritizing restrictive control is to the detriment of ensuring adequate availability of and access to controlled medicines, thereby violating the rights of people who need them. (hhrjournal.org)
  • While the effects of criminalization under drug policy limit the right to health in multiple ways, we draw on research and documented examples to highlight the impact of drug control and criminalization on access to medicines. (hhrjournal.org)
  • Indeed, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines includes 12 medicines that contain internationally controlled substances, such as morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, diazepam, and phenobarbital. (hhrjournal.org)
  • 2 Essential controlled medicines are used across the spectrum of health care, from childbirth, surgical anesthesia, and pain relief in palliative care (such as for people with end-stage AIDS or terminal cancer), to mental health treatment, drug dependence treatment, and neurological care. (hhrjournal.org)
  • Balancing the medical merits of substances with their likelihood for non-medical use is, in theory, a matter of scientific judgment, and the drug conventions provide that the scheduling of controlled medicines should be based on WHO recommendations. (hhrjournal.org)
  • jurisdictions
  • Many controlled substances embody the duality in the drug conventions-that is, they have both licit (medical) uses and uses defined as illegal in some jurisdictions. (hhrjournal.org)
  • committee
  • 3 To this end, WHO convenes an Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (WHO Expert Committee) to study controlled substances and make recommendations on the level of risk of harm and the therapeutic utility of a substance, which should subsequently be reflected in the substances' scheduling under the drug conventions. (hhrjournal.org)
  • medical
  • 1 The drug conventions further explicitly provide that controlled substances are indispensable for medical and scientific purposes. (hhrjournal.org)
  • Drug Policy
  • The prioritization and protection of human rights-specifically the right to health and the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress-are critical to rebalancing drug policy. (hhrjournal.org)