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  • bioactive
  • Milk is a complex fluid containing a huge variety of bioactive compounds. (healthline.com)
  • This may be due to several bioactive compounds found in milk. (healthline.com)
  • Simply burning these materials as a low-value energy source is wasting opportunities for wealth creation: while the energy value of bark is in the range of 10-20 € per ton, its value as growth substrate is more than tenfold, and as a source of bioactive molecules for high value-added products in medicine, cosmetics, industrial chemicals, or plant protection products, the potential value is several orders of magnitude greater. (europa.eu)
  • The European forest industry produces annually about 25-30 Mt of bark as a by-product, but the possibilities of using bark as a raw material for bioactive compounds, specialty chemicals, or for remediation, have gained only moderate attention in comparison with using bark as a marginal and small-scale energy source. (europa.eu)
  • Although not generally considered a medicinal plant, it does have bioactive components. (stevenfoster.com)
  • soil
  • Still, some plants release toxic compounds into the soil. (treecanada.ca)
  • Soilless culture offers several advantages over traditional soil culture such as more efficient nutrient regulation, efficient use of water and fertilizers, higher density planting, higher yield per unit area, year round production, higher quality and ease of processing of harvested material on account of minimal contamination from pollutants, pests and pathogens [7, 8 , (thefreelibrary.com)
  • But when the root senses a mycorrhizal fungus the beneficial kind that expands the root s ability to absorb nutrients from the soil the plant suppresses its counterattack and allows the fungal threads to penetrate. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • Most plant species, including crops, cannot tolerate the toxic effects of soil pollutants, which dramatically impair their growth and development. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some plant species are able to remove soil contaminants and grow normally, but these are a small minority. (eurekalert.org)
  • A series of chemical and physical interactions between rhizobia bacteria from the soil and legume root cells result in dedifferentiation and division of plant cells to form a nodule primordium and colonization of plant cells via an "infection thread" that delivers rhizobia into cortical cells ( Murray, 2011 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • nutrients
  • Ginger - This powerful plant helps the body absorb nutrients, and its anti-inflammatory qualities cure joint pain. (naturalnews.com)
  • Reuse of used nutrient solution for the cultivation of crops could lead to considerable conservation of water resources, plant nutrients use efficiency, and decrease environmental pollution [10, (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Interference" is the combined harmful effect of plant competition (for nutrients, water, and light) and allelopathy (one plant inhibiting the growth of another). (umn.edu)
  • Oxygen, nutrients, and moisture are usually best near the surface, so the roots of trees, turf, and other plants share this space. (umn.edu)
  • extracts
  • Plant extracts, in particular, may not all be antibacterial, but the can still reduce the virulence factor, or their ability to evade a host's immune system and cause infection, of bacteria. (naturalnews.com)
  • All extracts and the isolated and synthesized compounds were subjected to screening of bioactivity for medical, cosmetic, and plant protection purposes, for industrial applications, and the use of the total or remaining biomass in production of growth substrates, organic fertilizers, and bioremediation materials was investigated. (europa.eu)
  • defense
  • Each time a plant develops a new line of defense, its foes probe for a way around it. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • Commonly tested chemical elicitors are salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, benzothiadiazole, benzoic acid, chitosan, and so forth which affect production of phenolic compounds and activation of various defense-related enzymes in plants. (hindawi.com)
  • Plants can activate separate defense pathways depending on the type of pathogen encountered [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The better understanding of plant signalling pathways has led to the discovery of natural and synthetic compounds called elicitors that induce similar defense responses in plants as induced by the pathogen infection [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Following elicitor perception, the activation of signal transduction pathways generally lead to the production of active oxygen species (AOS), phytoalexin biosynthesis, reinforcement of plant cell wall associated with phenyl propanoid compounds, deposition of callose, synthesis of defense enzymes, and the accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, some of which possess antimicrobial properties [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • microbes
  • In an article published in the Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine , they called for the development of business models to support the development of plant-based medicine to address the increasing number of drug-resistant microbes. (naturalnews.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1 further comprising measuring the concentration of the compound in the sample after contacting the sample with the microbes. (google.com)
  • Plants concentrate salicylic acid when they are attacked, using it as we do as an anti-inflammatory to fight infections caused by viruses and other microbes. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • fungi
  • The efficacy of herbals in treatment of diseases for decades suggests that bacteria, fungi and viruses may have a reduced ability to adapt to a plant based antimicrobial regime," they wrote in their report. (naturalnews.com)
  • Some plant roots can discern whether fungi are hurtful or helpful. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • Like these symbiotic fungi, people often nourish plants that we find useful. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood) and not in adults (which feed only on fungi) indicates that only larvae (pre-) digest plant cell wall structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following the activation of HR, uninfected distal parts of the plant may develop resistance to further infection, by a phenomenon known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is effective against diverse pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • methyl
  • In addition, trace impurities in natural gas often can contain benzene and other compounds (including radon, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and organometallic compounds such as methyl mercury). (scpr.org)
  • Commonly
  • This popularity is due to its ability to thrive under conditions commonly found in most homes, and its usefulness as a specimen plant, center piece, or feature in dish gardens. (auburn.edu)
  • Lygaeinae, ca 550 species) are seed predators which are well known for their aposematic black and red coloration and seem to be commonly associated with apocynaceous host plants on five continents [ 9 - 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Trees and turfgrass are commonly planted together in today's landscapes. (umn.edu)
  • genes
  • Since then, a number of MATE genes have been reported to be involved in the Al-induced secretion of citrate in herbaceous plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Asian and African populations showed selection in genes affecting the metabolism of the plant sugars mannose and sucrose. (liveleak.com)
  • Portugal) discovered that two genes from baker's yeast can increase plant resistance to a broad range of toxic substances, enabling their growth in contaminated soils. (eurekalert.org)
  • Plants carrying the yeast genes grew significantly better than wild-type plants in contaminated soils. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because avoiding bitter plants would severely limit their food sources, strict herbivores have fewer bitter taste genes than omnivores or carnivores. (utah.edu)
  • Insect
  • Gene duplications circumvent trade-offs in enzyme function: Insect adaptation to toxic host plants. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Steroids and vitamin D were originally derived from insect-fighting plant compounds. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • Tomato plants under siege produce greater amounts of a chemical that inhibits the digestion of proteins in insect larvae, causing the ubiquitous leaf-munchers to become undernourished. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • Mouth fluids from caterpillars that eat corn, tobacco, and cotton cause the entire plant to emit a chemical scent that attracts insect parasites, which, in turn, attack the offending caterpillars. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii , including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coevolution in plant-herbivore interactions involves the production of plant defences and insect counter strategies. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • salicylic acid
  • Chemical precursors to salicylic acid, or aspirin, are found in the sap of tobacco and in other familiar plants, such as willow, teaberry, and both black and yellow birch. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • synthetic
  • They found that plants engineered with a synthetic shortcut are about 40 percent more productive. (phys.org)
  • substances
  • MONKS: Professor Froines explains that carbon particles lodged inside the body can actually produce other toxic compounds--in a sense, becoming engines that continuously manufacture substances with the potential to cause cancer. (loe.org)
  • Each receptor can interact with several compounds, allowing people to taste a wide variety of bitter substances. (utah.edu)
  • Arabidopsis
  • Overexpression of GsMATE on an Arabidopsis columbia -0 (Col-0) background resulted in increased Al tolerance in transgenic plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The IGC researcher adds: "To extrapolate these results to crops, we will need further experiments in Arabidopsis to understand the mechanisms underlying plant resistance as well as studies in other plant species. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many of my projects rely on the use of the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, due to the many research tools and bioinformatic databases available for use with that plant. (grinnell.edu)
  • Much work needs to be done to examine the hypotheses regarding these mechanisms, and genetically-modified Arabidopsis plants are being produced for future experiments. (grinnell.edu)
  • nitrogen
  • three main groups: phenolics, nitrogen containing compounds (e.g. (bio.net)
  • Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume nodules, where it is required for the activity of bacterial nitrogenase, plant leghemoglobin, respiratory oxidases, and other Fe proteins in both organisms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Loss of MtMATE67 gene function resulted in accumulation of Fe in the apoplasm of nodule cells and a substantial decrease in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and plant growth. (plantphysiol.org)
  • glycosides
  • Feeding specialization and host plant use - How the interaction with plant glycosides has shaped the digestive β-glucosidase activity in two Longitarsus leaf beetles. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • yield
  • Photosynthesis uses the enzyme Rubisco-the planet's most abundant protein-and sunlight energy to turn carbon dioxide and water into sugars that fuel plant growth and yield. (phys.org)
  • Four unmodified plants (left) grow beside four plants (right) engineered with alternate routes to bypass photorespiration -- an energy-expensive process that costs yield potential. (phys.org)
  • It costs the plant precious energy and resources that it could have invested in photosynthesis to produce more growth and yield. (phys.org)
  • This lead to a great loss to plant yield. (hindawi.com)
  • crop
  • The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines is an obligate plant parasite that can cause devastating crop losses. (illinois.edu)
  • We could feed up to 200 million additional people with the calories lost to photorespiration in the Midwestern U.S. each year," said principal investigator Donald Ort, the Robert Emerson Professor of Plant Science and Crop Sciences at Illinois' Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology. (phys.org)
  • Much like the Panama Canal was a feat of engineering that increased the efficiency of trade, these photorespiratory shortcuts are a feat of plant engineering that prove a unique means to greatly increase the efficiency of photosynthesis," said RIPE Director Stephen Long, the Ikenberry Endowed University Chair of Crop Sciences and Plant Biology at Illinois. (phys.org)
  • The team tested their hypotheses in tobacco: an ideal model plant for crop research because it is easier to modify and test than food crops, yet unlike alternative plant models, it develops a leaf canopy and can be tested in the field. (phys.org)
  • My research focuses on the response of plants to environmental stress at the molecular and biochemical levels, and utilizes both crop and model plant species. (grinnell.edu)
  • I am interested in observing the response of several antioxidant enzyme systems in a variety of crop and model plant species at early stages of development. (grinnell.edu)
  • leaf
  • A stomata is the part of a plant that allows gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide to move freely into and out of a leaf. (reference.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Some plants have evolved mechanisms for avoiding costly photorespiration reactions when carbon dioxide is in short supply. (reference.com)
  • One mechanism by which plants survive periods of chilling stress is through the induction of antioxidant mechanisms, which serve to protect numerous biological processes vital to plant growth and development. (grinnell.edu)
  • selective
  • If the ability to taste bitter compounds conveys a selective advantage, then shouldn't non-tasters have died off long ago? (utah.edu)
  • Today, the compound is regarded as a long-acting, selective, reversible and competitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor used in the systematic treatment of mild to moderate cognitive impairment in early stages of Alzheimer's disease. (stevenfoster.com)
  • organisms
  • Higher plants are frequently used as model organisms in Calvin Benson Bassham cycle (CBB) research given their ease of use in the laboratory. (illinois.edu)
  • humans
  • The uncertainty extends to mercaptan, the sulfur-based compound added to the otherwise odorless methane gas to give it the stinky scent that allows humans to detect leaks. (scpr.org)
  • Mandrake root contains an alkaloid called scopolamine that poisons some plant eaters but quells motion sickness in humans. (greenlivingjournal.com)
  • The ability to discern bitter tastes evolved as a mechanism to prevent early humans from eating poisonous plants. (utah.edu)
  • contains
  • Unfortunately, a large group of hardy plants contains these crystals. (mnn.com)
  • The nectar of the thunder god vine, Tripterygium hypoglaucum , contains a terpenoid, triptolide (TRP), that may be toxic to the sympatric Asian honey bee, Apis cerana , because honey produced from this nectar is toxic to bees. (biologists.org)
  • The mustard family ( Brassicaceae ) contains a number of important vegetables- broccoli , Brussels sprouts , cabbage , cauliflower , collards , kale , and kohlrabi -all members of Brassica oleraceae and comprising a group of vegetables called the cole crops, a term that probably reflects the fact that they are principally stem plants. (britannica.com)
  • For example, milk from pasture-raised cows that feed on bracken ferns contains ptaquiloside, a toxic plant compound that may increase the risk of stomach cancer ( 31 , 32 ). (healthline.com)
  • A scant handful of castor beans contains enough ricin to deliver a toxic dose. (utah.edu)
  • stalks
  • The flower heads and stalks of broccoli and cauliflower are eaten, the two plants differing in that the white head of the cauliflower consists of malformed (hypertrophied) flowers that form in dense clusters. (britannica.com)
  • produce
  • The plant super-heats waste oil from a nearby refinery to produce ultra-fine carbon particles. (loe.org)
  • However, there are a number of large scale operations that propagate and produce upward of one million plants a year. (auburn.edu)
  • Plants produce a variety of toxic compounds in order to protect themselves from being eaten. (utah.edu)
  • several
  • What we don't know is what are the long-term effects to being exposed for several months to the mercaptans and related compounds," says Dr. Frank Gilliland, a professor of preventive medicine at USC and director of the university's environmental health center. (scpr.org)
  • The compound 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1,2-propanedione was recently found to be an important pheromone component of several Asian species of longhorned beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae. (illinois.edu)
  • Several studies have examined the antioxidant response in plants exposed to chilling stress later in the growing season. (grinnell.edu)
  • North America
  • Steven is the author, co-author and photographer of eighteen books, including the NEW 2014 Third Edition of A Peterson Field Guide to Medicinal Plants: Eastern and Central North America (with James A. Duke), along with National Geographic's Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs (2010), and A Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine (2006, with Rebecca Johnson), awarded a 2007 New York Public Library "Best of Reference. (stevenfoster.com)
  • and A Field Guide to Venomous Animals and Poisonous Plants of North America (with Roger Caras, 1995). (stevenfoster.com)
  • These beautiful ladies are part of our foreign diversity in Eureka Springs and eastern North America generally, but alas they are just plants. (stevenfoster.com)
  • potentially
  • That said, the researchers urge further studies to be conducted, as plant-based antibiotics could potentially be used to deal with the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. (naturalnews.com)
  • Many of the calls involve consuming potentially toxic plants. (mnn.com)
  • microbe
  • The present invention provides methods of using a microbe containing a polypeptide that degrades, preferably detoxifies, a compound that is present in the environment. (google.com)
  • nutrient
  • This system also contribute to sustainable production of vegetables through adoption of most efficient growing conditions with regard to plant requirements in terms of nutrient elements, water supply, climatic conditions as well as modern managerial practices. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Molecular Biology
  • International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology presents current advances and comprehensive reviews in cell biology, both plant and animal. (elsevier.com)
  • production
  • Some plants TOXIC by production of cyanide-releasing compounds. (berkeley.edu)
  • Maintaining a medium temperature of 68°F can reduce production time by two weeks and improve plant quality and flowering. (auburn.edu)
  • Our modern system of industrial food production has resulted in adulteration of commercial food with toxic ingredients that are responsible for a major decline in health among people in industrialized nations. (rmhiherbal.org)