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  • peptides
  • Studies performed in vitro and in vivo showed that graft host Tregs specific to donor MHCII peptides / host MHCII complexes promoted T cell tolerance of fully allogeneic grafts. (jimmunol.org)
  • The models developed in this study were implemented in a web-based platform VaxinPAD to predict and design immunomodulatory peptides or A-cell epitopes. (springer.com)
  • protein
  • A series of experiments were performed to explore the role of complementing major histocompatability complex (MHC)-linked immune response Ir genes in the murine T cell proliferative response to the globular protein antigen pigeon cytochrome c. (rupress.org)
  • The coiled-coil dimeric nature of M protein and its relationship to the bacterial cell surface is shown. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The N-terminal region of the M protein, distal to the cell surface, varies among different M types, thereby providing the molecular basis of Dr. Lancefield's method of serotyping GAS. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • 4. The fusion protein of claim 1 , wherein the junction region comprises an IgG region wherein the LSLS amino acid sequence (amino acids 3-6 of SEQ ID NO:5) is mutated without generating a T-cell epitope. (google.ca)
  • The architectural chromosomal protein and proinflammatory mediator high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is tightly attached to the chromatin of apoptotic cells. (rupress.org)
  • Incorporated RNA is known to translocate to the cytoplasm leading to its translation by the host ribosome complex into the respective protein antigens. (knowcancer.com)
  • The strain harbors a recessive mutation of the gene encoding an SH2 domain of ζ-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70), a key signaling molecule in T cells ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • biomarkers
  • Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, EVs are potential biomarkers and antigens for vaccination, with potential uses for early diagnostic, and therapeutic applications in several diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumor
  • Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumor cells secrete EVs that are able to downregulate the immune system, allowing the escape from the immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, these vesicles can control tumor development and growth, by decreasing the expression and release of IL-2 reducing the proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells [ 14 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When there is a match between the T cell and the antigen, the T cell is stimulated and starts to produce several cytokines and other chemical messengers that include, but are not limited to, interleukin-12 (IL-12), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cytotoxic T cells, and B cells. (ptcommunity.com)
  • innate immunity
  • Yet overt disease is precipitated by further expansion and activation of autoimmune Th17 cells, for example, via IFN-γ deficiency, homeostatic proliferation, or stimulation of innate immunity by microbial products. (rupress.org)
  • Yet arthritis can be elicited in an SPF environment through antigen-nonspecific activation of innate immunity, for example, by injection of zymosan, a crude fungal extract containing β-glucans, or purified β-glucans such as laminarin ( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition characterised by a T-cell mediated attack on the hair follicle. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune reactivity to islet cell antigens that include the 65-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This report shows that highly self-reactive T cells produced in mice as a result of genetically altered thymic T cell selection spontaneously differentiate into interleukin (IL)-17-secreting CD4 + helper T (Th) cells (Th17 cells), which mediate an autoimmune arthritis that clinically and immunologically resembles rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (rupress.org)
  • The generation, differentiation, and persistence of arthritogenic Th17 cells per se are, however, insufficient for producing overt autoimmune arthritis. (rupress.org)
  • A key question for understanding the mechanism of autoimmune disease is how hazardous self-reactive T cells are produced by the thymus, become activated in the periphery, and differentiate to effector T cells that destroy the target organ, or how genetic and environmental factors contribute to this process. (rupress.org)
  • The SKG strain of mice, a mutant on the BALB/c background, spontaneously develops T cell-mediated autoimmune arthritis, which clinically and immunologically resembles rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans ( 2 , 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • The strain is therefore a suitable model for elucidating how self-reactive T cells develop and differentiate to arthritogenic effector T cells, and how autoimmune arthritis can be triggered by environmental insults in the presence of genetic predisposition. (rupress.org)
  • In this report, we show that autoimmune arthritis in SKG mice is highly dependent on the development of CD4 + T cells secreting IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine capable of recruiting and activating neutrophils and other inflammatory cells ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • immune response
  • EVs derived from normal cells cause either suppression or activation of the immune response by modulating the production of inflammatory mediators. (hindawi.com)
  • Immune response gene function correlates with the expression of an Ia antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Although it is clear that susceptibility to this process is under genetic and environmental control, the fine-tuning and regulation of the type-2 T-helper cell immune response is not yet fully understood. (ersjournals.com)
  • This bidirectional signal sustains the immune response for as long as the antigen remains in the system and promotes effector functions of T cells as well as supporting APC function and promoting humoral immunity [1, 3, (deepdyve.com)
  • apoptosis
  • For example, T-cells and monocytes secrete vesicles that contain FasL on the surface that modulate apoptosis of the other cells (Figure 2 ) [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • soluble
  • Normally, sections are cut and labeled within 1 day to prevent possible loss or redistribution of soluble antigens within the sections. (jove.com)
  • Treg
  • We also suggest that the endothelial and epithelial cells within the solid organ allograft upregulate the expression of MHC-II and attract the expanded Treg population to suppress inflammation within the graft. (frontiersin.org)
  • These pMHCII complexes - hereafter called TLo - were also involved in Treg-mediated suppression and in initial host Treg activation by graft MHCII. (jimmunol.org)
  • Extending these observations to Treg biology of normal animals, we have also shown that substantial amounts of TLo complexes selectively decorate antigen-presenting cells (APC) from the thymic medulla and participate in the differentiation of suppressive, TLo-specific Treg cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • expression
  • Western Blot analysis of HLA-DMB expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00003109-T03 ) by HLA-DMB MaxPab polyclonal antibody.Lane 1: HLA-DMB transfected lysate(28.90 KDa).Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This quantitative difference in Ia antigen expression correlated with a difference in the ability to present pigeon cytochrome c to B 10.A and B 10.S(9R) long-term T cell lines. (rupress.org)
  • Although constitutively expressed in the liver, intestine, and kidney, CD26 expression level is tightly regulated on T cells, and its density is markedly enhanced after T cell activation ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, anti-CD26 antibody treatment of T cells led to decreased surface expression of CD26 via its internalization, and this modulation of CD26 resulted in an enhanced proliferative response to anti-CD3 or anti-CD2 stimulation ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Antibody-induced modulation of CD26 on T cells resulted in a concurrent decrease in CD45 expression, enhanced phosphorylation of the TCR-associated zeta chain, and increased p56 Lck src-kinase activity ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • V. Contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to Epa-1 antigen expression. (springer.com)
  • epitope
  • Epitopes for four of five known reactive T-cell sequences restricted by HLA DRB1*0401 were aligned to solvent-exposed regions of the GAD65 structure and colocalized within the two B-cell epitope clusters. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Known T-cell epitope sequences mostly could be localized to the same region on the structure of GAD65. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • cytokines
  • These proteins include an antibody moiety and a cytokine moiety, and are useful for targeting cytokines to diseased cells, such as cancer cells. (google.ca)
  • The first report on the specific cytokine profile of T-cells involved in the pathogenesis of human asthma was published in the early 1990s, demonstrating that T-cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asthmatic patients predominantly produce the Th2-type cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-3, -4 and -5 5 , 6 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Although the involvement of Th2 cytokines explains the biological basis of many features of the allergic reaction ( e.g. recruitment of eosinophils, activation of mast cells, airway remodelling and IgE production), it has been observed more recently that asthmatic individuals may also exhibit an increased Th1-like response to allergens 10 , 11 , especially in established disease 12 - 15 . (ersjournals.com)
  • tissue
  • The work of transplant tolerance consists in reaching accommodation between these two systems (allotolerance), while avoiding autoimmunity to tissue antigens of the graft. (springer.com)
  • Ultrathin sections of mildly fixed tissue and cultured cells were stored for up to 6 months before immunogold labeling. (jove.com)
  • bacteria
  • A basic studies to develop the immune therapy for periodontal diseases by employing glycolipids derived from periodontal bacteria as antigens. (nii.ac.jp)
  • amounts
  • However, (B10.A(4R) × B10.PL)F(1) and (B10.S × B10.PL)F(1) mice do express A(k)(e):E(u)(a) and A(8)(e):E(u)(a) on their cell surface, although in reduced amounts relative to A(k,s)(e):E(k,d,p,r)(a) complexes found in corresponding F(1) strains. (rupress.org)