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  • bacterial
  • They constitute a large fraction of the reduced carbon reservoir in the ocean and enhance the survival of marine bacteria influencing the physicochemical environment in proximity of the bacterial cell. (mdpi.com)
  • Sugars play an important role in biology by either forming conjugates with other biomolecules (e.g., glycoproteins) or by mediating cell surface recognition events (e.g., bacterial or viral binding to cells). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In conclusion, dietary FCB decreased the abundance of bacterial communities, particularly the population of bacteria related to cellulolytic degradation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms which exert selective pressure on the bacteria and aids them to escape from the action of antibiotics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nonetheless, targeting bacterial virulence strategies such as bacterial surface associated polysaccharides biosynthesis and their surface accumulation mechanisms may be an attractive strategy, as they impose less selective pressure on the bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) or K -antigen that is located on the bacterial surface armors bacteria from host immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • fungi
  • Moreover, heterotrophs, which include animals, fungi, and most bacteria, are unable to synthesize organic compounds from inorganic sources, and must rely on the (direct or indirect) consumption of plants and other autotrophs to obtain the organic substrates necessary for growth and development. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • convert
  • The primary function of all these bacteria is to convert one of the two major grape acids found in wine called L-malic acid, to another type of acid, L+ lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically
  • However, in commercial winemaking, malolactic conversion typically is initiated by an inoculation of desirable bacteria, usually O. oeni . (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • A novel bifunctional enzyme, L-rhamnulose-phosphate aldolase (RhaE) fused to L-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (RhaW), which is not homologous to previously characterized L-Rha catabolic enzymes, was identified in diverse bacteria including Chloroflexi, Bacilli, and Alphaproteobacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • thus
  • They are thus called REDUCING SUGARS . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS Like sugar materials, starchy materials are also in the human food chain and are thus expensive. (businessdocbox.com)
  • Thus, unencapsulating bacteria would be a good strategy for drug design, besides CPS itself being a good vaccine target, by interfering with CPS biosynthesis and surface assembly pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • immune
  • Sometimes this immune dysfunction is triggered by an infection or, less commonly by surgery and rarely by vaccination . (wikipedia.org)
  • consumption
  • While Pasteur did notice an acid reduction in wine with the lactic bacteria, he did not link that process to a consumption of malic acid by the bacteria, but rather assumed it was just tartrate precipitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • The Archaea domain has characteristics in common with both the Bacteria and Eukarya domains, while at the same time exhibiting unique properties. (frontiersin.org)
  • scientists
  • The Swiss enologist Hermann Müller was one of the first scientists to theorize that bacteria were a potential cause of acid reduction in wine. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • Characteristics particular to archaea include differences in cell membrane lipids and cell walls ( Albers and Meyer, 2011 ), which vary in composition and, unlike bacteria, lack peptidoglycan ( Kandler and König, 1978 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • growth
  • Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • However
  • However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • production
  • A wine undergoing malolactic conversion will be cloudy because of the presence of bacteria, and may have the smell of buttered popcorn , the result of the production of diacetyl. (wikipedia.org)