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  • Infection
  • IL-1, TNF, histamine and prostaglandin D2) and suppressed levels of IL-10 at the site of microbial infection are likely to amplify local inflammatory responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since approximately 80% of infectious diseases are known to be transmitted by touch, and pathogens found in healthcare facilities can survive on inanimate surfaces for days and even months, the microbial burden of frequently touched surfaces is believed to play a significant role in infection causality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical trials are being conducted on microbial strains unique to individual healthcare facilities around the world to evaluate to what extent copper alloys can reduce the incidence of infection in hospital environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contamination
  • they found that wearing rings was associated with a 10-fold higher median count of skin microorganisms, especially with yeast species or Gram-negative bacilli and a stepwise increase risk of contamination with any transient organism as the number of rings worn increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological
  • Biological filters combining microbial activity and rapid sand filtration are used in drinking water treatment plants for enhanced biodegradable organic matters (BOM) removal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2009 ). Seeking a convenient, inexpensive, and efficient method for microbial decontamination is a major goal of public health against airborne biological threats. (springer.com)
  • Bioaerosols are natural or artificial particles of biological (microbial, plant, or animal) origin suspended in the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • this makes them the preferred counting method in fast biological experiments in which it needs to be merely determined whether a cell culture has grown as expected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campylobacter
  • Two more trials were carried out to evaluate a wider range of caprylic acid doses on cecal Campylobacter counts, in which day-of-hatch chicks (n=90 per trial) were assigned to 9 treatments: negative controls (no Campylobacter, no caprylic acid) and caprylic acid doses of 0 (positive controls), 0.35, 0.525, 0.7, 0.875, 1.05, 1.225, and 1.4% (n=10 chicks/treatment). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In all 4 trials, the 0.7% dose of caprylic acid consistently reduced Campylobacter content counts compared with the positive control. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cytokines
  • Defensins are produced constitutively and/or in response to microbial products or proinflammatory cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capacity of defensins to enhance phagocytosis, promote neutrophil recruitment, enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines, suppress anti-inflammatory mediators and regulate complement activation argues that defensins upregulate innate host inflammatory defenses against microbial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other microbial products can directly activate monocytes and this leads to production of pro-inflammatory and, with some delay, of anti-inflammatory cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biofilms
  • The pulsed-power imparts electromagnetic fields into the cooling water and the induced fields have a direct effect in preventing mineral scale formation on equipment surfaces and controlling microbial populations to very low levels while also significantly reducing biofilms present in cooling systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Petri
  • The microbiologist should also be capable of distinguishing the diverse colonies of Mycobacteria from other microorganism colonies on a Petri dish and capable of confirming Mycobacteria by acid-fast staining method. (astm.org)
  • As the surface area of most filters is less than that of a standard petri dish, the linear range of the plate count will be less. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Plate Count Method, the sample of drug product to be tested and Soybean-Casein Digest Broth is poured into a Petri dish. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • citation needed] Concentrations of colony-forming units can be expressed using logarithmic notation, where the value shown is the base 10 logarithm of the concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • culturable
  • 5.2 The measurement of viable and culturable mycobacterial densities (Guide E1326 ), combined with the total mycobacterial counts (including viable culturable (VC), viable nonculturable (VNC) and nonviable (NV) counts), is usually the first step in establishing any possible relationship between Mycobacteria and occupational health concerns (for example, HP). (astm.org)
  • viable cells
  • Although this method can be time consuming, it gives an accurate estimate of the number of viable cells (because only they will be able to grow and form visible colonies). (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival
  • 5.4 This practice is also applicable for establishing the mycobacterial resistance of metalworking fluid formulations by determining mycobacterium survival by means of plate count technique. (astm.org)
  • CELLS
  • However, solitary cells are the exception in nature, and most likely the progenitor of the colony was a mass of cells deposited together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous procedures in biology and medicine require the counting of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the counting of cells in a known small volume, the concentration can be mediated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually the culture examined needs to be diluted, otherwise the high density of cells would make counting impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Coulter counter is an appliance that can count cells as well as measure their volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • content
  • In order to isolate organisms in materials with high microbial content, such as sewage, soil or stool, serial dilutions will increase the chance of separating a mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • determine
  • For example, the complete blood count can help a physician to determine why a patient feels unwell and what to do to help. (wikipedia.org)