• 1 Data from a prospective cohort study known as the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study was used. (bmj.com)
  • In a prospective cohort study, researchers raise a question and form a hypothesis about what might cause a disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Instead a prospective cohort study is observational rather than interventional. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prospective cohort study. (aappublications.org)
  • In a prospective cohort study, we examined and followed participants enrolled in the Copenhagen General Population Study between November 2003 and April 2015. (cmaj.ca)
  • Physical activity and risk of hypertension: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. (nih.gov)
  • A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was performed to investigate the effect of PA on hypertension risk. (nih.gov)
  • PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify all related prospective cohort studies. (nih.gov)
  • Thirteen prospective cohort studies were identified, including 136,846 persons who were initially free of hypertension, and 15,607 persons developed hypertension during follow-up. (nih.gov)
  • The samples, which include cord blood, whole blood, plasma, and urine, were collected from women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study , or MoBa, an ongoing, long-term prospective cohort study of pregnant Norwegian women and their children. (nih.gov)
  • The National Longitudinal Study on Hearing (NL-SH), also internationally known as the Netherlands Longitudinal Study on Hearing, is an ongoing prospective cohort study implemented via the Internet. (emgo.nl)
  • Postinfectious neurologic syndromes: A prospective cohort study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • and c) assess the clinical/paraclinical features that help differentiate PINSs from multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, adult inpatients with PINSs underwent extensive diagnostic assessment and therapeutic protocols at inclusion and during a minimum 2-year follow-up. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Caffeine consumption and miscarriage: a prospective cohort study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Major problem with a prospective cohort design is that the cohort must be followed up for a long period of time. (slideserve.com)
  • To quantitatively assess this association, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. (cambridge.org)
  • The Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), a collaborative study by NCI, Vanderbilt University, and the Shanghai Cancer Institute, is a prospective cohort study of approximately 75,000 Chinese women who were recruited between 1997 and 2000. (cancer.gov)
  • In this paper we use novel data from a large longitudinal prospective cohort study to estimate the effects of WIC, SNAP, and home visitation programs on early life outcomes up to two years of age. (nber.org)
  • We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to assess the relation of egg consumption with incident HF in the general population. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods: A pooled analysis of the primary data from 12 prospective cohort studies was conducted. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two important types of cohort studies are: Prospective Cohort Study: In this type of study, there is a collection of exposure data (baseline data) from the subjects recruited before development of the outcomes of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a prospective cohort study is, for instance, if a demographer wanted to measure all the males births in the year 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods Our cohort study is based on nationwide Danish health registries, comprising all women with an embryo transfer during 1 January 1994 through 30 June 2017. (bmj.com)
  • The objective of this task is to identify, develop, and evaluate simple, cost effective monitoring methods that can be used to develop exposure classifications for the proposed Longitudinal Cohort Study. (epa.gov)
  • Methods once evaluated should be applicable to other epidemiological studies. (epa.gov)
  • Methods: A multifaceted national effort employed novel strategies to recruit a diverse cohort, and collected biological and environmental samples and extensive data on potential breast cancer risk factors. (medworm.com)
  • Methods: Randomly selected adults were recruited into a bio-medical representative cohort study based in the north western suburbs of the capital of South Australia -- Adelaide. (ebscohost.com)
  • The DESAD was assembled to conduct studies to determine if DES Daughters were at an increased risk for health problems related associated with their exposure to DES (Labarthe, 1978). (cdc.gov)
  • In a cohort study, a defined population with known information on exposure is followed up. (springer.com)
  • In the analytic method of epidemiological study called a cohort study, subsets of a defined population are identified and categorized on the basis of exposure to known levels of a risk factor that is believed to be associated with a disease outcome such as coronary heart disease or cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Several cohort studies of cancer risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation have made use of existing data to shorten considerably the many years of observation that would otherwise be required to demonstrate and measure levels of risk. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. (epa.gov)
  • Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. (epa.gov)
  • Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiological studies is often limited by time, budget, and compliance issues. (epa.gov)
  • Cohort studies typically observe large groups of individuals, recording their exposure to certain risk factors to find clues as to the possible causes of disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The starting point of a cohort study is the recording of healthy subjects with and without exposure to the putative agent or the characteristic being studied. (gfmer.ch)
  • The measure of association between exposure and disease in cohort studies is the relative risk. (gfmer.ch)
  • In a current cohort study, the data concerning exposure are assembled prior to the occurrence of disease-the current cohort design thus representing a true prospective study. (gfmer.ch)
  • In terms of levels of evidence for establishing relationships between exposure and outcome, cohort studies are considered second to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) because RCTs limit the possibility for biases by randomly assigning one group of participants to an intervention/treatment and another group to non-intervention/treatment or placebo. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The information generated by this study may be of value in developing programs to mitigate environmental uranium exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • A Prospective Birth Cohort Study Involving Environmental Uranium Exposure in the Navajo Nation" is the first prospective epidemiologic study of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in a uranium-exposed population. (cdc.gov)
  • In cohort studies, we follow groups of people over time, we collect data on their exposure and outcome, and try to estimate whether there is an association between the group-defining characteristic and the outcome of interest. (coursera.org)
  • Prenatal mercury exposure in a multicenter cohort study in Spain. (nih.gov)
  • NIEHS epidemiologists are collaborating with scientists from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study to explore how exposure to environmental contaminats in early life may affect adult health. (nih.gov)
  • The main objective of this three-year research project is to analyze the cohorts of FDNY firefighters and EMS workers, both WTC-exposed and non-WTC exposed in order to compare cancer incidence by WTC-exposure status during the early post-9/11 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Longitudinal Cohort Study of Prenatal Exposure to Mercury in. (lww.com)
  • Neurotoxicity from prenatal exposure to methylmercury has been studied but no firm conclusions have been reached on the dose-response relationship, especially at levels of exposure less than 10 ppm. (lww.com)
  • This study has enrolled a total of 1700 pregnant women and their children in Slovenia, Croatia, Italy and Greece to assess the impact of mercury exposure through fish consumption during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment. (lww.com)
  • They allow researchers to compare outcomes according to exposure to suspected risk factors by creating a hypothesis to study. (endvawnow.org)
  • In a cohort study, patients are sampled on the basis of exposure and are followed over time, and the occurrence of outcomes is assessed. (annals.org)
  • A case series may be a study that samples patients with both a specific outcome and a specific exposure, or one that samples patients with a specific outcome and includes patients regardless of whether they have specific exposures. (annals.org)
  • All studies involve some descriptive or analytic type of comparison of exposure and disease status. (slideserve.com)
  • The exposure of interest is determined for each member of the cohort and the group is followed to document incidence in the exposed and non-exposed members. (slideserve.com)
  • Most recently, nested case-control molecular epidemiology studies and occupational exposure analyses of lung cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma have been conducted. (cancer.gov)
  • Retrospective Cohort Study: Retrospective Studies start with subjects that are at risk to have the outcome or disease of interest and identifies the outcome starting from where the subject is when the study starts to the past of the subject to identify the exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of my doubts about the difference between studies in epidemiology have been cleared up. (coursera.org)
  • Cohorts were ancient Roman military units, but in modern epidemiology the word "cohort" is used to describe a group with a shared characteristic. (coursera.org)
  • The Communities, Households and SARS/COV-2 Epidemiology (CHASING) COVID study has been in the field since March 28, 2020, and is one of the earliest national longitudinal studies of COVID-19 to be launched since the pandemic began spreading in the United States. (eurekalert.org)
  • We are more than six months into the COVID-19 pandemic, and there are still many critical questions, some of which can only be answered with longitudinal epidemiologic studies," says Dr. Denis Nash, Distinguished Professor of Epidemiology at CUNY SPH and a Principal Investigator of the CHASING COVID study. (eurekalert.org)
  • NICHD plans to establish new epidemiology cohort(s) of least 2000 participants to stimulate research on a wide range of HIV research hypotheses pertinent to reproductive age women. (nih.gov)
  • This study identifies a group of people and follows them over a period of time to see how their exposures affect their outcomes. (www.nhs.uk)
  • however, for the majority of individuals within the study population exposures vary dramatically over time (62 subjects sampled six times during a one-year period - air, food, water, dust, and urine). (epa.gov)
  • Additionally, the study will provide additional baseline data on exposures, behaviors, and chronic health that may be of value in developing health education and outreach to increase prenatal care utilization. (cdc.gov)
  • Known as the "The Navajo Birth Cohort Study" (NBCS), the goal of the study is to better understand the relationship between uranium exposures and birth outcomes and early developmental delays on the Navajo Nation. (cdc.gov)
  • and 3) to conduct a ten-day exploratory study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to compare real-time exposures between tobacco users and nonusers. (fda.gov)
  • Select a cohort (defined population) BEFORE any of its members become exposed or before the exposures are identified. (slideserve.com)
  • Members of the cohort have been followed through multiple in-person interviews to obtain information on diet, occupational and environmental exposures, and various lifestyle factors. (cancer.gov)
  • These studies may have multiple exposures which may make this study difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Connecticut Mothers Study - The participants included women who delivered babies during 1946-1965 at medical offices in Fairfield and New Haven Counties, Connecticut. (cdc.gov)
  • The participants are now included in the DES Combined Cohort Studies (Hadjimichael, 1984). (cdc.gov)
  • the first included mothers who were participants in a study at the University of Chicago in the early 1950s. (cdc.gov)
  • British Research Medical Council (BRMC) Study - Participants included pregnant diabetic women enrolled in clinical trial and DES Daughters and DES Sons identified through follow-up study, for a total of 151 participants (79 DES-exposed and 72 unexposed people) (Reid, 1955). (cdc.gov)
  • For example, scientists may ask participants to record specific lifestyle details over the course of a study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In experimental studies, such as RCTs, the scientists intervene, for example, by giving participants a new drug and assessing the outcomes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We needed to find a memorable name for the study that could grow alongside its participants and have meaning for them whatever their background. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In a cohort study, the study participants are followed over time-from weeks to years, depending on the time frame. (iwh.on.ca)
  • This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The cohort included 108 135 participants with a median age of 68 years. (cmaj.ca)
  • 14 - 16 In a 2018 study involving 98 344 participants from the general population of Denmark, we found that lymphopenia was associated with a high risk of infectious disease. (cmaj.ca)
  • The cohort study, by Seena Fazel from the University of Oxford, and colleagues, showed in subgroup analysis that this association was evident in participants aged 15-24, but not significant for individuals aged 25 and older. (eurekalert.org)
  • The CHASING COVID study will follow participants through July 2022. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study team is aiming to get at least 5,000 baseline specimens before sending out a second round of kits to participants. (eurekalert.org)
  • The current study examined evidence for sexual behavior change in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among participants of a clinical cohort in Uganda. (thebody.com)
  • Partner turnover rates and the proportion of HIV-infected participants on ART, two key factors for modeling the potential impact of ART on the epidemic, were also studied. (thebody.com)
  • There are currently nine cohorts working with more than 12,000 diverse participants that represent a broad cross-section of patients across the country. (drugabuse.gov)
  • We identified twenty studies of coffee consumption and total mortality, including 129 538 cases of deaths among the 973 904 participants. (cambridge.org)
  • Background: Analysis was undertaken on data from randomly selected participants of a biomedical cohort study to assess representativeness. (ebscohost.com)
  • The cohort participants were 4060 randomly selected adults (18+ years). (ebscohost.com)
  • Results: There were no major differences between study participants and the comparison population in terms of current smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, overall health status and proportions with current high blood pressure and cholesterol readings. (ebscohost.com)
  • There were some demographic differences with study participants more likely to be in the middle level of household income and education level. (ebscohost.com)
  • In order to clearly determine the presence of atopic disorders and depression, we used more valid tools than had been employed earlier and we had access to a database (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort), in which individuals were followed up prospectively until the age of 31 years. (nature.com)
  • These diagnostic tools and an access to the genetically homogenous Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort database enabled us to carry out the research. (nature.com)
  • The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study is comprised of an unselected, genetically homogenous general population: in the two northernmost Finnish provinces, that is, Oulu and Lapland, 96% of all women ( n =12 068), with an expected date of delivery falling between 1st January and 31st December in 1966, were evaluated and they gave birth to 12 058 live infants. (nature.com)
  • The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort was followed up prospectively from pregnancy up to the age of 31 years. (nih.gov)
  • CLS tracks published work using cohort data in order to help other researchers avoid duplication and also demonstrate the value of the studies to the research community. (ioe.ac.uk)
  • This critical study will help researchers to understand the complex interaction between biology, behaviour and the environment, and how this interaction influences a child's health and wellbeing as he/she develops. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Researchers in such a study could determine what's affecting the workers' RTW. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The finding says nothing about cause and effect but is consistent with other studies suggesting that HDL plays a role in immunity, say researchers, who propose that it might help explain infection risks observed in some clinical trials of HDL-modifying therapies. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers matched 6342 statin users in the overall cohort with 6342 nonusers, according to baseline demographics, comorbidities, presence of renal disease, healthcare utilization, and medication use. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers also identified a "healthy cohort" of 3982 statin users and 21,988 nonusers, and they matched 3351 statin users with 3351 nonusers. (medscape.com)
  • The Cohort study is now complete, and we commissioned a longitudinal analysis of the entire 10-year data from researchers at Sheffield and York Universities. (bma.org.uk)
  • The strength of a cohort study is that it is the best way to determine the causes of a disease, condition or issue because it allows researchers to follow one group of people over time and allows researchers to study multiple outcomes at one time. (endvawnow.org)
  • C3PNO's team of researchers works with the various cohort principal investigators and NIDA program scientists to align research priorities, facilitate collaboration between cohorts and NIDA, and organize in-person conferences to highlight successes and address challenges. (drugabuse.gov)
  • This is an observational study, so cannot establish cause, and the researchers point to some limitations that may have affected their results. (gla.ac.uk)
  • These studies lay the groundwork for future research and help inform researchers about disease incidence, viral diversity and host genetics and treatment outcomes. (hivresearch.org)
  • The scientific community and the public can access much of the MACS data, and study investigators actively pursue collaborations with outside researchers who propose studies of high scientific quality to the MACS leadership. (nih.gov)
  • A study led by the University of Birmingham provides strong support for current recommendations on treating patients with an underactive thyroid and validates latest UK and US guidelines, say researchers. (medicalxpress.com)
  • After 20 years, the death rates from lung cancer , other respiratory system cancers, chronic obstructive lung disease, and coronary heart disease all showed significant differences related to smoking habits among this large cohort (Doll and Peto 1976). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Nurses' Health Study is one example of a large cohort study, and it has produced many important links between lifestyle choices and health by following hundreds of thousands of women across North America. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The purpose of this FOA is to address critical scientific questions on the clinical course of HIV infection and treatment in a large cohort of HIV-positive young women of reproductive age. (nih.gov)
  • Objective: The Sister Study sought a large cohort of women never diagnosed with breast cancer but who had a sister (full or half) diagnosed with breast cancer. (medworm.com)
  • This type of study can describe characteristics or outcomes in a particular group of people, but cannot determine how they compare with people who are treated differently or who do not have the condition. (www.nhs.uk)
  • These outcomes may be the incidence of diagnosed disease, and/or deaths certified due to the disease being studied, as well as deaths due to other causes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When compared with the case-control study nested within the cohort, the case-cohort design has flexibility for a series of exploratory analyses because a single subcohort is employed to analyze multiple outcomes. (lww.com)
  • Cohort studies are a type of medical research used to investigate the causes of disease and to establish links between risk factors and health outcomes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Strengths of a cohort study include the fact that multiple outcomes can be observed. (iwh.on.ca)
  • Overall, the present study provides novel evidence on the link between HDL and infection-related outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • We are missing more extensive, real-world data of the effectiveness of statins on total morbidity and all-cause mortality, and we need further studies specifically focusing on long-term outcomes in primary prevention. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to COVID-19 outcomes, the CHASING COVID study is also gathering critical data on mental health, employment, and economic outcomes, and factors that influence them over time. (eurekalert.org)
  • As the largest prospective observational study reported worldwide so far, it provides a comprehensive picture of the characteristics of patients hospitalised in the UK with COVID-19 and their outcomes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Studies in China have reported risk factors associated with severe COVID-19, but studies describing the features and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 who have been admitted to hospital in Europe are lacking. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This new research study will help to define and understand clinical outcomes over the course of young women's reproductive lives, including a focus on the effects of HIV and antiretroviral treatment during pregnancies and post-partum periods. (nih.gov)
  • The primary study outcomes were change in IPSS, BP, and heart rate from baseline. (dovepress.com)
  • For a more detailed account of design, conduct and analyses of epidemiological studies, the reader is referred to textbooks and methodological articles given in the list of references. (gfmer.ch)
  • Nevertheless, despite the large study size and the sensitivity analyses provided, the presence of additional confounders or reverse causation cannot be fully excluded. (medscape.com)
  • The final number of cohort members, whose completed variable information was available in multivariate logistic analyses, was 2721 males and 2968 females. (nih.gov)
  • Other studies have examined the influence of social support on depression scores in peripartum mothers by multiple linear regression analyses. (nature.com)
  • Analyses from the Danish HIV Cohort Study showed that, despite comparable economic means and general education of healthcare personnel, antiretroviral treatment of HIV in Greenland began later and has been implemented at a slower pace with lower therapeutic effectiveness than in Denmark. (acronymfinder.com)
  • We report mortality rates and causes of death in a cohort of women who used homeless shelters in Toronto. (cmaj.ca)
  • In addition, we analyzed data from published studies of mortality rates among homeless women in 6 other cities (Montreal, Copenhagen, Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Brighton, UK). (cmaj.ca)
  • Previous studies have focused on excess mortality observed among homeless people relative to their counterparts in the general population. (cmaj.ca)
  • 14 In a study of homeless people in Boston, mortality rates among men were 5.9, 3.0 and 1.6 times higher than those in the general population for people 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years of age respectively. (cmaj.ca)
  • No study has investigated a priori the effect of digoxin on mortality in patients with AF. (springer.com)
  • Using data from the Registry of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS-HIA), we studied the 1-year mortality among patients admitted to coronary care units with AF, CHF, or AF+CHF with or without digoxin ( n = 60,764) during 1995-2003. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the association between optimism and cause-specific mortality in women after considering the role of potential confounding (sociodemographic characteristics, depression) and intermediary (health behaviors, health conditions) variables. (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, they say this is the largest study of its kind outside of China and clearly shows that severe covid-19 leads to a prolonged hospital stay and a high mortality rate. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of inherited predisposition on cancer mortality among the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Association of Elevated Body Mass Index and Hypertension with Mortality: the CroHort Study. (ebscohost.com)
  • Aim of this study was to investigate association of elevated body mass index and hypertension with general mortality in the cohort from Croatian Adult Health Cohort Study (CroHort). (ebscohost.com)
  • Leisure Time Physical Activity of Moderate to Vigorous Intensity and Mortality: A Large Pooled Cohort Analysis. (ebscohost.com)
  • This study extends previous reports associating hypnotics with excess mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Estimate the mortality risks associated with specific currently popular hypnotics in a matched cohort design, using proportional hazards regression models. (bmj.com)
  • HealthDay)-Psoriasis is significantly associated with an increased mortality risk, according to a study published online Aug. 12 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. (medicalxpress.com)
  • And with regards to observational study designs, cohort studies are considered the most robust. (coursera.org)
  • It is a longitudinal observational study including babies and their mothers (n=180) from birth with follow up measurements up till 2 years of age. (wur.nl)
  • As in any observational study, we cannot rule out the possibility that effects in the exposed group might be due to unidentified confounders. (cdc.gov)
  • Other historical cohort studies have shown that repeated chest X-rays (or fluoroscopic screenings) increase the risk of breast cancer many years later. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Depending on the time when the cohort study is initiated relative to occurrence of the disease(s) to be studied, one distinguishes between current and historical cohort studies. (gfmer.ch)
  • Numerous limitations exist in conducting longitudinal/cohort studies. (endvawnow.org)
  • Cohort in a glossary, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Division of Information Services Centre for Longitudinal Studies - the UK resource centre for national birth cohort studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • After case-control studies had revealed evidence suggesting that the use of diagnostic X-rays during pregnancy might increase the risk of cancer in childhood, several cohort studies were set up to confirm or refute this evidence. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although case-control studies have reported conflicting results for dairy foods and lactose, several cohort studies have shown positive associations between skim milk, lactose, and ovarian cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also compare our results with those of other published studies of homeless women and with data for women in the general population. (cmaj.ca)
  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (j.nr. 2012-58-0018, 17/37434). (bmj.com)
  • Another major limitation of passive surveillance is the lack of a precise population denominator from which to calculate attack rates and disease burden without resorting to additional studies, especially in developing countries, where accurate data on demographics and health service usage are rarely available. (who.int)
  • Retrospective cohort studies look at data that already exist and try to identify risk factors for particular conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They can be prospective studies and gather data going forward, or retrospective cohort studies, which look at data already collected. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Experimental research provides data from which firmer conclusions can be made as compared with epidemiological studies. (gfmer.ch)
  • This study is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), the aging program within ICPSR. (umich.edu)
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All patients were continuously enrolled in the healthcare plan during the study, and there were no missing data. (medscape.com)
  • The EMGO + institute has a number of institute specific resources that strongly facilitate scientific integrity and the quality of all phases of research, including study design, data collection, data analysis and reporting. (emgo.nl)
  • The data on HSCL-25 depression subscale, doctor-diagnosed life-time depression and fish consumption (during the previous 6 months) of cohort members were obtained by postal questionnaires at the age of 31. (nih.gov)
  • The data on life-time fish consumption of cohort members were not available. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, Fazel and colleagues compared the rate of violent crime while individuals were prescribed SSRIs with the rate of violent crime in the same individuals while not receiving medication, using matched data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Swedish national crime register. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using a population-based retrospective cohort design, and utilizing the Western Australian Data Linkage System for the period 2000-2002 (2.5 years), the study found that 992 people died of either AD alone or AD with at least one other condition recorded on the death certificate. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This paper proposes an empirical implementation of the concept of inequality of opportunity in health and applies this to data from the UK National Child Development Study. (repec.org)
  • We used prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 70,021). (nih.gov)
  • Data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study ( n = 15,117), containing information from surveys and registers are used. (diva-portal.org)
  • The detail and depth of the data resulting from these longitudinal studies, some of which began in the late 1980s, allow NIDA and the AIDS Research Program to track trends and support research priorities that will have the greatest impact on the field. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Conclusions PCS with its large scale and wealth of socio-economic and medical data can be a unique platform for studying the etiology of non-communicable diseases and effective interventions in Iran. (repec.org)
  • 5 A recent report on self-poisoning in Australia 8 provided only limited information about drug overdoses in older people, while an earlier, small study of deliberate self-poisoning by mature Australians included data only to July 1998. (mja.com.au)
  • Cohort studies of such patients are important, they say, and this study is a testament to good planning and preparation before, and implementation of data collection during a pandemic. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A cohort study is a longitudinal study that identifies a group of subjects sharing some attributes (a "cohort") then takes measurements on the subjects at various points in time and records data for the group. (statistics.com)
  • Scientists affiliated with the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network, or eMERGE, this week published the first results of an ongoing study to determine whether data from electronic medical records can be used to identify disease phenotypes with sufficient statistical power for use in genome-wide association studies. (genomeweb.com)
  • Through behavioral questionnaires and the collection of biological specimens, study staff gather 8,500 separate pieces of information from each participant every six months, generating a gold mine of data and specimens for investigation. (nih.gov)
  • Over the years, data and biological samples (blood/buccal cell and urine) collected in the SWHS have been used to evaluate many important etiologic hypotheses and support multiple studies. (cancer.gov)
  • We identified seven prospective studies in four countries that met specific criteria and analyzed the primary data in a standardized manner. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Pooled estimates of the relation of fat intake to the risk of breast cancer were calculated, and data from study-specific validation studies were used to adjust the results for measurement error. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cohort data can oftentimes be more advantageous to demographers than period data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because cohort data is honed to a specific time period, it is usually more accurate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is more accurate because it can be tuned to retrieve custom data for a specific study. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, cohort data is not affected by tempo effects, unlike period data. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the contrary, cohort data can be disadvantageous in the sense that it can take a long amount of time to collect the data necessary for the cohort study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrospective use records: clinical, educational, birth certificates, death certificates, etc. but that may be difficult because there may not be data for the study that is being initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can find out more about the 1970 British Cohort Study by viewing an interview with its Principal Investigator, Alice Sullivan below. (ioe.ac.uk)
  • To control the coronavirus pandemic, we need to understand the impact of the public health response at several levels," says Dr. Christian Grov, the other Principal Investigator of the study and Professor and Chair of the CUNY SPH Department of Community Health and Social Sciences. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Wismut cohort is the largest cohort of miners occupationally exposed to radon. (bfs.de)
  • The Wismut cohort is one of the largest cohort studies of miners occupationally exposed to radon. (bfs.de)
  • The University of Glasgow is one of six universities to have contributed to the largest cohort study to date on the detailed characterisation of hospital COVID-19 patients in the world. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Of 97,166 persons followed in the longitudinal Copenhagen General Population Study , 9% experienced an infectious-disease hospitalization over a median of 6 years, according to the report published December 8, 2017 in the European Heart Journal , with lead author Dr Christian M Madsen (Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark). (medscape.com)
  • The case-cohort design is an efficient alternative to the full cohort design. (lww.com)
  • Nevertheless, the case-cohort design has not often been employed. (lww.com)
  • We show a simple sample size formula for the case-cohort design interpretable as the straightforward expansion of the conventional sample-size formula for the cohort study. (lww.com)
  • In this course, you will learn about the main epidemiological study designs, including cross-sectional and ecological studies, case-control and cohort studies, as well as the more complex nested case-control and case-cohort designs. (coursera.org)
  • You will also learn about nested case-control and case-cohort studies, which allow us to harness the advantages of cohort studies in more efficient ways. (coursera.org)
  • The Original Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study consisted of 5,209 respondents of a random sample of 2/3 of the adult population of Framingham, Massachusetts, 30 to 62 years of age by household, in 1948. (framinghamheartstudy.org)
  • Thus, our group will examine the onset of type and characteristics of PE by a retrospective cohort study to discuss if susceptibility gene and pathogenic genetic variation were existing in PE patients, also to find the relativity between clinical phenotype and genotype. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Retrospective cohort study of 4002 singleton pregnancies with a gestational age ≥34 w at Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, during 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. (hindawi.com)
  • On the other hand, an example of a retrospective cohort study is, if a demographer was examining a group of people born in year 1970 who have type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any study in which there are measures of some characteristic of one or more cohorts at two or more points in time is cohort analysis. (springer.com)
  • A "cohort" is any group of people with a shared characteristic. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The present study extends our understanding about putative gender differences of this association and provides further epidemiological evidence for our previous finding that the association between atopy and depression may be characteristic for females only. (nature.com)
  • The essential characteristic in the design of cohort studies is the comparison of outcome in an exposed group and a nonexposed group(or a group with a certain characteristic and a group w/o that characteristic). (slideserve.com)
  • In statistics, marketing and demography, a cohort is a group of subjects who share a defining characteristic (typically subjects who experienced a common event in a selected time period, such as birth or graduation). (wikipedia.org)
  • A by-product of cohort studies is the use of some of the persons studied to conduct one or more case-control studies that are "nested" within the total cohort population. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For instance, the total cohort fertility rate is an index of the average completed family size for cohorts of women, but since it can only be known for women who have finished child-bearing, it cannot be measured for currently fertile women. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000-2001. (umich.edu)
  • In this three-year project, investigators will examine male youth initiation of ST (i.e., chew, snuff, snus, and dissolvables) and dual use, as well as the marketing, advertising and other environmental factors that may contribute to initiation, by administering self-report questionnaires to a cohort of 1050 rural and 1050 urban Ohio males aged 11-14 and their families. (fda.gov)
  • Questionnaires assessing fatigue and psychiatric morbidity were sent to all patients aged 18-45 years in the study practices. (prohealth.com)
  • Ways to follow-up with subjects of the study include: phone interviews, face-to-face interviews, physical exams, medical/laboratory tests, and mail questionnaires. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Career Tracker cohorts (or SNSF-CTC) will start in October 2018 with a ten-year timeline. (snf.ch)
  • MUSIC] As you know, epidemiologic studies can be split into two types, descriptive and analytic. (coursera.org)
  • You've previously learned about descriptive studies and now we're focusing on analytic studies, these deal with individuals. (coursera.org)
  • In particular, we're looking at observational studies within the analytic study design group. (coursera.org)
  • A case-control study is an epidemiological study that is often used to identify risk factors for a medical condition. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This is a more powerful observational method of epidemiological study than a case-control study, but as the above account makes clear, it is a major undertaking, involving prolonged study of very large numbers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For these reasons, cohort studies are undertaken only when the investigators have good evidence to support their working hypothesis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • MACS investigators prospectively study the natural and treated history of HIV infection in thousands of homosexual and bisexual men at sites in Baltimore, Chicago, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles. (nih.gov)
  • All female staff that works, examination and delivery in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from Dec 1995 to Dec 2016 should be in the cohort. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, there are numbers of epidemiologic study have analyzed high risk factor of PE which provides significant medical evidence of prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment for PE, there is only little study focus on susceptibility gene and pathogenic genetic variation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Impact of Low Income on Child Health: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study ," CASE Papers 085, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE. (repec.org)
  • The Impact of Low-Income on Child Health: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study ," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 04/098, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK. (repec.org)
  • The impact of low income on child health: evidence from a birth cohort study ," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6305, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library. (repec.org)
  • There is growing recognition of the powerful role that longitudinal research can play in building evidence for policy and programme development, and there is considerable interest in establishing new longitudinal studies in developing countries. (unicef-irc.org)
  • The idea that chronic fatigue has an infectious origin has become popular, but the main evidence for such an association has come from retrospective case-control studies, which are subject to ascertainment bias. (prohealth.com)
  • Our study shows no evidence that common infective episodes in primary care are related to the onset of chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome. (prohealth.com)
  • In studies from a total of 7 cities, the risk of death among homeless women was greater than that among women in the general population by a factor of 4.6 to 31.2 in the younger age group and 1.0 to 2.0 in the older age group. (cmaj.ca)
  • Case crossover studies look at the effects of factors that are thought to increase the risk of a particular outcome in the short term. (www.nhs.uk)
  • For example, this type of study might be used to look at the effects of changes in air pollution levels on the short-term risk of asthma attacks. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This type of study is normally used to look at the effect of suspected risk factors that cannot be controlled experimentally, for example the effect of smoking on lung cancer. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The cohort was created to determine if women exposed to DES during pregnancy were at increased risk for cancer (Greenberg, 1984). (cdc.gov)
  • It is a study of samples of the population of Framingham, Massachusetts, in which several risk factors associated with coronary heart disease , other cardiovascular diseases, and more recently, several other chronic diseases, have been assessed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This and several other cohort studies have clarified our understanding of the principal risk factors for coronary heart disease, such as elevated serum lipids, high blood pressure , and cigarette smoking. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The cohort study design is the best available scientific method for measuring the effects of a suspected risk factor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A prospective population-based cohort study to examine whether varenicline use during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations in infants above that associated with smoking during pregnancy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The large scale, the long observation period and the wealth of information about different risk factors make this study unique. (bfs.de)
  • COPENHAGEN, DENMARK - High and low levels of HDL cholesterol predicted increased risk of infectious disease, especially gastroenteritis and bacterial pneumonia , in a large population-based cohort study [ 1 ] . (medscape.com)
  • that is, the risk in the confirmation cohort didn't follow a U-shaped curve. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, he said, in the overall much smaller confirmation cohort there were probably too few people at high HDL levels for the increased risk to be apparent. (medscape.com)
  • According to Nordestgaard, the findings are consistent with his group's earlier study [ 3 ] in which high levels of HDL-C predicted an increased risk of death from any cause. (medscape.com)
  • DALLAS, TX - A large, 8-year retrospective study with a median 6.4-year follow-up associated long-term statin use with an increased risk of kidney disease [ 1 ] . (medscape.com)
  • Our study did not examine whether the benefits outweigh the risk (it was not designed for that)," he noted. (medscape.com)
  • In the overall cohort, statin use was associated with a significantly increased risk of different types of kidney disease. (medscape.com)
  • In a subgroup analysis of that study, it was found that digoxin increased the death rate [relative risk (RR) = 1.42), but it was suggested that this may have been attributable to prescription of digoxin for patients at greater risk of death, such as those with congestive heart failure (CHF). (springer.com)
  • Observational studies have shown lymphopenia to be associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, 1 - 5 cancer, 6 - 11 liver disease (including alcohol abuse disorders) 12 , 13 and systemic autoimmune disease. (cmaj.ca)
  • The initial objective of the Hoorn Study was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and associated risk factors in a study population of approximately 2,500 people. (emgo.nl)
  • Case-control studies permit the identification of risk factors for disease and usually requires a much smaller sample size than cohort studies. (endvawnow.org)
  • Abstract Objectives The pars cohort study (PCS) is a 10-year cohort study aiming to investigate the burden and the major risk factors of non-communicable diseases, and to establish a setting to launch interventions for prevention of these diseases and controlling their risk factors. (repec.org)
  • The new study -- published today in The BMJ and led by the University of Liverpool, University of Edinburgh and Imperial College London -- revealed age, male sex, obesity, and underlying illness have emerged as risk factors for severe COVID-19 or death in the UK. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Prof Malcolm Semple, a study lead, added: "Our study identifies sectors of the population that are at greatest risk of a poor outcome, and shows the importance of forward planning and investment in preparedness studies. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Whereas a cohort study, in principle, enables the calculation of an absolute risk or a rate for the outcome, such a calculation is not possible in a case series. (annals.org)
  • Leu M, Czene K, Reilly M. Bias correction of estimates of familial risk from population-based cohort studies. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Bias correction of estimates of familial risk from population-based cohort studies. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Start with a group of subjects who lack a positive history of the outcome of interest yet are at risk for it (cohort). (slideserve.com)
  • Significantly more people who reported a medium to very high alcohol risk participated in the study. (ebscohost.com)
  • Conclusion: People with risky behaviours participated in this health study in the same proportions as people without these risk factors. (ebscohost.com)
  • Patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) have an increased risk for long-term opioid use, according to a study published online Sept. 11 in JAMA Dermatology. (medicalxpress.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Cohort studies of fat intake and the risk of breast cancer--a pooled analysis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Furthermore, the Nurses' Health Study and Swedish Mammography Cohort found a stronger positive association between higher lactose intake and specifically risk of serous ovarian cancer ( 34 , 35 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although dietary factors and ovarian cancer risk have been evaluated in case-control settings, few prospective studies have examined diet and ovarian cancer risk, primarily due to the small number of cases of ovarian cancer that have occurred in the individual studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In some cases, cohort studies are preferred to randomized experimental design. (springer.com)
  • One of the reasons hindering the wide use of the design may be the scarcity of the information essential for planning individual studies, including sample size calculation. (lww.com)
  • Recently, Cai and Zeng 3,4 have presented a method for power/sample size calculation as a natural generalization of the log-rank test in the full cohort design. (lww.com)
  • UK academics from social, environmental, clinical, and biomedical sciences together with UK policymakers attending today's scientific conference have an opportunity to engage with Life Study and its design and to comment on the topics and measures that have been proposed for inclusion in the pilot phase of the study, due to commence in 2013. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Choosing an appropriate study design is a critical decision that can largely determine whether your study will successfully answer your research question. (coursera.org)
  • The final module is dedicated to randomised controlled trials, which is often considered the optimal study design, especially in clinical research. (coursera.org)
  • By the end of this course, you will be able to choose the most suitable study design considering the research question, the available time, and resources. (coursera.org)
  • In this module, you will learn how to design such a study, the kind of problems which may arise and how it compares with case-control studies. (coursera.org)
  • By the end of the module, you will be able to choose the best study design in a variety of contexts. (coursera.org)
  • The MACC Study employs a multilevel design, including a cohort sequential design of five ages at the individual level where individuals (adolescents) are surveyed every six months. (umich.edu)
  • Study design and setting A retrospective death registry-based study that examined a stratified random sample of death notification forms (DNFs) of patients who died in hospitals in Palestine was reported in 2012. (diva-portal.org)
  • A longitudinal design was used to study the effectiveness of an intervention, the Communities Care program (CCP), in changing harmful social norms associated with GBV in a community in Mogadishu, Somalia. (endvawnow.org)
  • To address some of the potential issues of using a longitudinal design in a conflict-affected setting, the research team from John Hopkins and their NGO partners (Comitato Internazionale per lo Sviluppo dei Popoli - CISP) had to carefully consider the study design. (endvawnow.org)
  • Case series are a commonly reported study design, but the label "case series" is used inconsistently and sometimes incorrectly. (annals.org)
  • This course will teach you how to design studies to produce statistically valid conclusions. (statistics.com)
  • Design Longitudinal electronic medical records were extracted for a one-to-two matched cohort survival analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Design strengths included matching patient and control cohorts by age, gender and smoking. (bmj.com)
  • When a confirmation analysis was conducted on another population-based cohort, 9387 patients from the Copenhagen City Heart Study , the lower HDL-C concentration was associated with an HR of 2.00 (1.16-3.43) for any infectious-disease hospitalization, and the higher concentration was associated with an HR of 1.13 (0.80-1.60), both compared with the midrange HDL-C concentration. (medscape.com)
  • A meta-analysis of population-based studies in Canada reached much the same conclusion. (medscape.com)
  • A total of 1883 mother and child pairs from a population-based cohort were included between 2004 and 2008. (nih.gov)
  • You will also develop the skills to identify strengths and limitations of the various study designs. (coursera.org)
  • Although the study is conducted in occupationally exposed responders, the results will be relevant to other individuals exposed to the WTC attacks. (cdc.gov)
  • Cohort and case-control methodologies are the main tools for analytical epidemiological research. (gfmer.ch)
  • On sensitivity analysis, stratification by gender differences, follow-up duration, and region where study was conducted did not alter the main conclusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • The CPEA cohort will support the creative combination of scholarship and activism within education, encouraging critical reflection on both the conceptual and practical potential and limitations of that tradition. (ubc.ca)
  • A confidence interval (CI) expresses the precision of an estimate and is often presented alongside the results of a study (usually the 95% confidence interval). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Results based on the initial study indicated that DES was not effective in preventing miscarriages (Dieckmann, 1953). (cdc.gov)
  • The effort and expense required to conduct cohort studies have been justified by the results of several well-known studies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, stratification of the study population (i.e., the majority of the environmental/biological samples collected from the "highly exposed population" of children) often is required, given the expense of multiroute, multimedia monitoring (numerous non-detect results are counterproductive in determining sources). (epa.gov)
  • Results from the study will be used by policy makers and regulators to create policies that maximize the possible benefits and minimize the possible harms of expanded gambling in the Commonwealth. (umass.edu)
  • The cohort allows for the investigation of various research issues and previous results were published in many publications. (bfs.de)
  • Results: Low SEP was associated with younger age at childbearing in all cohorts, but the magnitudes of these associations were stronger in ALSPAC. (scribd.com)
  • Pars cohort study of non-communicable diseases in Iran: protocol and preliminary results ," International Journal of Public Health , Springer;Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+), vol. 62(3), pages 397-406, April. (repec.org)
  • Results: The Sister Study enrolled 50,884 U.S. and Puerto Rican women 35-74 y of age (median 56 y). (medworm.com)
  • RESULTS: Information about 4980 cases from studies including 337,819 women was available. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The MACS has been one of the most rigorous and productive epidemiologic HIV/AIDS studies in history," says Dr. Fauci. (nih.gov)
  • The conclusions that can be drawn from findings of these types of studies are, however, much weaker compared to those of cohort and case-control studies. (gfmer.ch)
  • This is not to say that findings from cohort and case-control studies always reflect true associations which can be universally generalized. (gfmer.ch)
  • Although information of such extraneous factors is collected and quantitatively adjusted for when they are known to be present, findings from observational epidemiological studies are generally less conclusive than those from experimental studies because of the less strict control of extraneous factors. (gfmer.ch)
  • The findings of this study, though cautionary, suggest that short-term [randomized controlled trial] may not fully describe long-term adverse effects of statins," Acharya and colleagues conclude. (medscape.com)
  • The most notable findings in the longitudinal study concern gender differences. (bma.org.uk)
  • We undertook to validate this criteria in our cohort, and the findings are discussed in chapter 5. (uva.nl)
  • Recommendations in ADA's Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes guideline are supported by findings from scientific publications (primarily clinical trials and case studies). (rpi.edu)
  • Most of the information on treatment outcome and recurrence rates of CCA has come from the study of patients in the Registry. (cdc.gov)
  • The experimental approach allows control of the effect of extraneous factors that may have an effect on the outcome under study, but are not under investigation. (gfmer.ch)
  • The goal is to understand the relationship between some attribute related to the cohort at the beginning of the study and the eventual outcome. (iwh.on.ca)
  • We report a prospective study of the outcome of clinically diagnosed infections in patients presenting to UK general practitioners. (prohealth.com)
  • Case-control studies are relatively simple and economical to carry out, but the one weakness is that only one outcome may be studied at a time. (endvawnow.org)
  • The study population will consist of all live born and stillborn infants in Denmark and Sweden. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Supporting this, in one prospective study, mothers of 224 infants reported 74% and 100% to suffer at least one local disturbance during the eruption of the front and back teeth, respectively. (aappublications.org)
  • The measure of disease in cohort studies is the incidence rate, which is the proportion of subjects who develop the disease under study within a specified time period. (gfmer.ch)
  • Nevertheless, no study has evaluated the incidence and severity of PEP after re-treatment and after initial RCT of teeth with vital or necrotic pulp [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, severity, and types of PEP presenting after root canal treatment in teeth with vital or necrotic pulp and after retreatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Experiments in animals, international correlation comparisons, and case-control studies support an association between dietary fat intake and the incidence of breast cancer. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Funding The study was supported by the Research Foundation of the Region of Southern Denmark, and the Free Research Foundation at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. (bmj.com)
  • For research purposes, a cohort is any group of individuals who are linked in some way or who have experienced the same significant life event within a given period. (springer.com)
  • The Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort or MAGIC Study is a multi-year study being carried out by a research team from the University of Massachusetts Amherst School of Public Health & Health Sciences (SPHHS). (umass.edu)
  • Using participant responses, the MAGIC Research Team will be able to study gambling problems as they emerge. (umass.edu)
  • What is a cohort study in medical research? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Professor Paul Boyle, Chief Executive of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) which funds Life Study, in partnership with the Medical Research Council (MRC), said: "There can be no more important goal than to improve the lives, health and wellbeing of children, which is exactly what Life Study aims to do. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The Symposium seeks to provide an opportunity to reflect on challenges and opportunities of longitudinal research in low income settings, identifying lessons and best practices for future studies. (unicef-irc.org)
  • The University's Dr Antonia Ho, Clinical Senior Lecturer/Consultant in Infectious Diseases at the UofG-MRC Centre for Virus Research (CVR), coordinated Scottish patient recruitment on behalf of the study, recruiting around a third of all consented patients in the UK. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The study is funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Liverpool Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, NIHR Health Protection Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at University of Liverpool with Public Health England. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The MACS led key studies that linked sexual behavior to HIV transmission, determined the median period of time between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS, showed that an imbalance of T-cell types precedes AIDS, and made a multitude of other pivotal discoveries that advanced HIV/AIDS research. (nih.gov)
  • NIAID conducts and supports research - at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide - to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. (nih.gov)
  • The primary aim of the MACC study was to evaluate local tobacco control programs in Minnesota, and the secondary aim was to better define the patterns of tobacco use in young adults and to evaluate the effects of tobacco control programs on these patterns. (umich.edu)
  • The NL-SH is a unique cohort, as it includes adults ranging from 18 to 70 years at baseline, and hearing impairment is the central topic under investigation. (emgo.nl)
  • The CHASING COVID study follows a cohort of thousands of adults residing in the U.S. recruited using internet-based strategies. (eurekalert.org)
  • The overall aim of the GORILLA study is to investigate the biological and environmental determinants of child growth comprehensively in a poor resource rural setting of Rwanda. (wur.nl)
  • A new study identifies specific locations where medication and harm reduction services for people with opioid use disorder should be available in order to have the greatest impact on reducing opioid overdose deaths. (medicalxpress.com)
  • GWAS studies have indeed identified several genes that have effect only in PsA and not psoriasis or have substantially larger effects in PsA. (uva.nl)
  • Clearly more genetic and functional studies are needed to unravel the genetic associations further and elucidate the functional relevance of genes residing in the GWAS-associated regions. (uva.nl)
  • A before and after study measures particular characteristics of a population or group of individuals at the end of an event or intervention and compares them with those characteristics before the event or intervention. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This type of study compares a group of patients who have that condition with a group of patients that do not have it, and looks back in time to see how the characteristics of the two groups differ. (www.nhs.uk)