Loading...
  • mRNA
  • The zinc-finger antiviral protein recruits the RNA processing exosome to degrade the target mRNA," PNAS, Jan. 2, 2007, vol. 104 (No. 1), p. 151-156. (patentgenius.com)
  • and inhibiting expression orlevels of HBV mRNA by cleavage of HBV RNA molecules in the subject therefore inhibiting HBV infection in the subject. (patentgenius.com)
  • The length of the pause in the A‐site, the fitness of the tRNA in the P‐site and the mRNA sequence determine the frequency of slippage by the peptidyl‐tRNA and thus the frequency of frameshift. (embopress.org)
  • At the ribosome the tRNA anticodon is matched to the mRNA codon, and the charged tRNA delivers the next residue of a nascent protein chain. (asm.org)
  • A complete model for the ribosome in complex with P- and E-site tRNA Phe , mRNA and RF2 was thus built and refined ( 13 ) ( Fig. 1B ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Each protein-coding gene is transcribed into a short template molecule of the related polymer RNA, known as messenger RNA or mRNA. (wikia.org)
  • aaRSs
  • The aaRSs distinguish a particular set of tRNA species from a pool of many tRNA molecules in the cell through interactions with a group of nucleotides called the identity elements. (pnas.org)
  • For most aaRSs, the tRNA identity elements include the anticodon bases 34-36 and the discriminator base 73 in addition to other locations that are specificity dependent. (pnas.org)
  • genes
  • pathological mutations of tRNA, cytb, and ATPase genes have been successfully modeled. (mdpi.com)
  • It is essential to stress that what has been discovered with yeast (molecular mechanisms underlying the diseases, nuclear correcting genes, import of tRNA into mitochondria or compounds from drug screening) has been successfully transferred to human patient lines, paving the way for future therapies. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, genes for tRNA were synthesized and the synthetic gene for an amber suppressor tRNA was shown to be functional in vivo. (asmscience.org)
  • In the tRNA field, Abelson and Miller and their colleagues have carried out studies on aminoacylation specificity of tRNAs in vivo, using synthetic genes for suppressor tRNAs. (asmscience.org)
  • This chapter presents a summary of information on the structures and organization of prokaryotic tRNA genes based on recent work surveying the total tRNA populations and tRNA genes in Escherichia coli by Ozeki's group at Kyoto and in Mycoplasma capricolum by Osawa's group at Nagoya. (asmscience.org)
  • In many organisms, however, the number of mitochondrial tRNA genes is not sufficient to ensure mitochondrial translation and nucleus-encoded tRNAs have to be imported from the cytosol to mitochondria. (prolekare.cz)
  • First, the formation of proteins must strictly obey instructions from the RNA genes, so that the wisdom already accumulated in the RNA sequences through evolution would not be wasted. (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • codon
  • The premodified tRNA Ile 2 has a CAU anticodon, which also appears in premodified methionine tRNA (tRNA Met ) specific to the AUG codon. (pnas.org)
  • Here we present the crystal structure at 3.5 Å resolution of release factor RF2 in complex with its cognate UGA stop codon in the 70S ribosome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this structure, the C‐terminal domain binds between the characteristic long variable arm of the tRNA and the anti‐codon stem, thus recognizing the unique shape of the tRNA. (embopress.org)
  • In the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas , a precise correlation was found between the mitochondrial codon usage and the nature and amount of imported tRNAs. (prolekare.cz)
  • A closer analysis reveals that, surprisingly, RNA binding sites for Arg, Ile and Tyr "prefer" (exactly as in the actual genetic code) the anticodon(2-3)/codon(1-2) tetramers to their anticodon(1-2)/codon(2-3) counterparts, despite the seemingly perfect symmetry of the latter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • specificity
  • The rapid progress of research in the tRNA field and recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of specificity in tRNA: protein interactions make it necessary to have all of the accumulated information in an easily accessible form. (asmscience.org)
  • Beginning with an historical account, the book covers a broad area of research on tRNA biosynthesis, the different functions of tRNA in the genetic decoding process, its association with many different proteins, and the emerging rules governing the specificity of their interactions. (asmscience.org)
  • peptide
  • A universally conserved tripeptide sequence, GGQ ( 3 ), has been implicated in hydrolysis of the peptide chain from tRNA ( 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Initially, flexible single-stranded RNA is used for dense surface-packing, followed by hybridization with the complementary RNA strand to maximize the assembly of the targeting peptide for cellular uptake and siRNA delivery. (ucsb.edu)
  • hypothesis
  • Biological Background According to the RNA world hypothesis, the modern biological world evolved from a form of life that was mostly RNA-based (for a review see reference 25 ). (asm.org)
  • This led to the hypothesis that tRNA import might be a dynamic process able to adapt to the mitochondrial genome content. (prolekare.cz)
  • mitochondrial
  • Mitochondria from diverse phyla, including protozoa, fungi, higher plants, and humans, import tRNAs from the cytosol in order to ensure proper mitochondrial translation. (prolekare.cz)
  • This indicates that tRNA mitochondrial import cannot be rapidly regulated in response to a novel genetic context and thus does not appear to be a dynamic process. (prolekare.cz)
  • It rather suggests that the steady-state levels of imported tRNAs in mitochondria result from a co-evolutive adaptation between the tRNA import mechanism and the requirements of the mitochondrial translation machinery. (prolekare.cz)
  • The mitochondrial import of cytosolic tRNAs is a widespread phenomenon and has been experimentally documented in diverse organisms including protozoa, fungi, higher plants and mammals . (prolekare.cz)
  • Furthermore, variations between the extents of mitochondrial localization of individual nucleus-encoded tRNAs have been observed. (prolekare.cz)
  • Indeed, in Leishmania tarentolae , tRNAs are classified into three groups (mainly cytosolic, mainly mitochondrial and shared between the two compartments) according to their relative abundance in the cytosol or mitochondria . (prolekare.cz)
  • vitro
  • To construct short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) and miR30-based shRNAs against heparanase (HPSE) to compare their safety and their effects on HPSE down-modulation in vitro and in vivo to develop a more ideal therapeutic RNA interference (RNAi) vector targeting HPSE. (ijbs.com)
  • Mechanism
  • The mechanism by which release factors specifically decode stop codons and catalyze peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis is a fundamental problem in understanding translation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One development mechanism that meets both requirements is the two-stage RNA Peptidation mechanism16 (Fig. 14.3). (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • Development of triplet coding by the RNA Peptidation mechanism. (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • miRNA
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the fully processed RNAi trigger molecules are incorporated into a micro RNA (miRNA). (patentgenius.com)
  • endogenous
  • A class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs, miRNAs, post-transcriptionally regulates gene expression in a perfect or an imperfect sequence-specific manner to exert their RNAi effects [ 11 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • organisms
  • Although they are present in tRNA in all organisms and in many different positions of the tRNA, many of them are present in the anticodon region and especially in position 34 (the wobble position) and 37 (3′ and adjacent to the anticodon). (embopress.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • One activity is designated as 'pretransfer' editing and involves the hydrolysis of activated Val-AMP. (string-db.org)
  • One activity is designated as 'pretransfer' editing and involves the tRNA(Pro)-independent hydrolysis of activated Ala-AMP. (string-db.org)
  • mutants
  • Kinetic analyses of the conserved residues' mutants indicated that C34 of tRNA Ile 2 is adenylated by an ATP lying across the NTD central hole and that a lysine, which is activated at a loop appended to the NTD, nucleophilically attacks the C2 carbon from the rear. (pnas.org)
  • However, since the frequency of frameshifting in several different mutants [ mnmA , mnmE , tgt , truA (hisT) , trmD , miaA , miaB and miaE ] defective in tRNA modification was higher compared with the corresponding wild‐type controls, these modifications have a common function: they all improve reading frame maintenance. (embopress.org)
  • wherein
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the RNAi triggers target approximately 3.5, 2.1, 2, 4, or 0.7 kilo base pair RNAs of the HBV, or any subset thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • 10. The composition of claim 1, wherein the O-tRNA comprises a polynucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 3, a conservative variation thereof, and a complementary polynucleotide sequence thereof. (patents.com)
  • translation machinery
  • From this point of view, it is no surprise, therefore, that much of the translation machinery is composed of RNA molecules. (asm.org)
  • The nucleus-encoded tRNAs imported into mitochondria are used in the cytosolic translation machinery and only a small percentage of cytosolic tRNAs is present in mitochondria. (prolekare.cz)
  • occurrence
  • Despite the broad occurrence of this process, our understanding of tRNA import mechanisms is fragmentary, and crucial questions about their regulation remain unanswered. (prolekare.cz)
  • nucleic acid
  • Other embodiments for targeted inactivation of viral genomes use small nucleic acid molecules, such as short micro-RNA molecules or short hairpin RNA molecules capable of mediating RNA interference (RNAi) against the hepatitis B virus. (patentgenius.com)
  • In summarizing the four decades of tRNA research, it is appropriate to note that tRNA has been the source of many firsts in nucleic acid research. (asmscience.org)
  • posttranscriptional
  • RNA interference (ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi) is a powerful tool that blocks gene expression in mammalian cells by triggering sequence-specific gene degradation during posttranscriptional gene silencing [ 5 ]. (ijbs.com)