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  • acyl-CoA synthetase
  • Although Pxa1/2p has been proposed to transport acyl-CoAs of different chain lengths [ 8 , 13 ], medium chain free (non-esterified) fatty acids are also imported into yeast peroxisomes via a parallel, ABC-independent route which requires the peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), Faa2p and the adenine nucleotide translocator, Ant1p [ 8 , 14 , 15 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Through unbiased expression screening of a bovine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cDNA library, we have identified elongation of very long-chain fatty acids-like 1 (ELOVL1) and fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4), which each have very long-chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCFA-ACS) activity, as negative regulators of RPE65. (jneurosci.org)
  • synthetase
  • To further improve the levels of available acyl-CoA molecules, a flexible propionyl-CoA synthetase gene from Ralstonia solanacearum (prpE-RS) was cloned and expressed in the engineered strain BAP1 (Rajashekhara et al 2004, Pfeifer et al 2000). (tufts.edu)
  • acetyl
  • Induction of the prpE-RS gene resulted in ~1.5-, 15-, and 8.5-fold increases in acetyl-, butyryl-, and propionyl-CoA, respectively, when fed with corresponding substrates. (tufts.edu)
  • Additionally, the propionate transporter AtoAD was expressed with PrpE-RS resulting in a 1.44- and 1.34-fold increase in butyryl- and acetyl-CoA, but no significant increase in propionyl-CoA. (tufts.edu)
  • To further test the availability of alternative acyl-CoA substrates observed for polyketide biosynthesis, attempts were made to quantify the production of 6-dEB, acetyl-, and butyryl-6dEB analogs (14-nor-6dEB, 15-Me-6dEB), but no significant improvements in analog production were observed. (tufts.edu)
  • Overall, it was observed that the native PrpE in E. coli demonstrates an intrinsic substrate flexibility resulting in increased acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-CoA levels. (tufts.edu)
  • This includes the most highly conserved motif A, which contains an Arg/Gln-X-X-Gly-X-Gly/Ala sequence that is important for acetyl-CoA recognition and binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • A different solution to the movement of amphipathic molecules across a lipid bilayer is deployed by the bacterial lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) flippase, PglK, in which the hydrophilic head group and the hydrophobic polyprenyl tail of the substrate are proposed to have distinct translocation pathways but are not chemically separated during transport. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Escherichia
  • The acyl-CoA levels in several engineered Escherichia coli strains constructed for improved heterologous polyketide production were quantified using LC-MS/MS. It was observed upon feeding propionate that the engineered E. coli strains had increases in both propionyl- and methylmalonyl-CoA of ~6- to 30-fold and ~3.7- to 6.8-fold respectively. (tufts.edu)
  • As a result, the introduction of the flexible PrpE-RS and propionate transporter AtoAD did not significantly improve the acyl-CoA levels in Escherichia coli. (tufts.edu)
  • affinity
  • 2. GPAT activity in mitochondria differed from the microsomal activity in that it was insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, had a higher affinity towards the palmitoyl-CoA substrate and showed a different response to changes in hormonal and dietary status. (biochemj.org)
  • genetic
  • The observed increases in acyl-CoA levels reflect the genetic modifications designed for improved polyketide production and correlate with the previously observed titer improvements in 6-deoxyerythronolide B (the macrolactone precursor of the potent polyketide antibiotic erythromycin) (Zhang et al. (tufts.edu)
  • bind
  • The NBDs form a 'sandwich dimer' capable of binding and hydrolysing ATP, whereas the TMDs, each composed of multiple α-helices, bind and translocate substrates [ 6 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • They contain a bromodomain , which helps them recognize and bind to acetylated lysine residues on histone substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine
  • It catalyzes the pyridoxal-5-prime-phosphate-dependent condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA to 3-oxosphinganine. (genecards.org)
  • production
  • In particular, the short chain acyl-CoA class of metabolites, used as building blocks for the production of polyketides, was studied. (tufts.edu)
  • medium
  • Dilute the substrate stock solution 1:200 in medium to a final concentration of 5 μM. (neb.com)
  • For best performance, add the CoA substrate to complete medium, including serum (0.5% BSA can be used for experiments carried out in serum-free medium). (neb.com)